Abstract

An experimental Du Pont holographic photopolymer material produces an index modulation in excess of 10−2 utilizing a diffusion mechanism. Optimum exposure in air is typically 30 mJ/cm2, in nitrogen 3 mJ/cm2. Composition, beam ratio, and exposure power all affect the index modulation. This, combined with thickness variations, permits diffraction efficiency to be preadjusted for a variety of desired angular responses and spatial frequencies. The material can be easily overmodulated according to Kogelnik’s phase grating theory. No wet processing is required. After total polymerization, storage at 100°C, −60°C, and under water does not significantly affect the diffraction efficiency. Image–object superposition is exact for real-time holography. Excellent copies of silver halide holograms with four times the original efficiency have been made. Grating devices with tailored peak or flat wavelength response can be constructed.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Urbach, “Advances in Hologram Recording Materials,” in Developments of Holography, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Seminar in Depth (1971), Vol. 25, p. 17.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).
  3. W. S. Colburn, K. A. Haines, Appl. Opt. 10, 1636 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. A. Haines, W. S. Colburn, T. C. Arends, E. T. Kurtzner, “Applications of Photopolymer Holography,” presented at IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Application, Washington, D.C. (4 June 1971).
  5. R. H. Wopschall, “Dry Photopolymer Film for Recording Holograms,” presented at OSA Meeting, Tucson, Arizona (5 April 1971).
  6. R. H. Wopschall, T. R. Pampalone, Appl. Opt. 11, 2096 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. L. Booth, Appl. Opt. 11, 2994 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. L. Booth, “Photopolymer Holographic Material,” presented at OSA Meeting, Rochester, N.Y. (12 October 1973).
  9. U.S. Patent3,658,526 Hologram Recording in Photopolymerizable Layers. Inventor: E. F. Haugh, assigned to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 25August1969, issued 25 April 1972.
  10. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1972 (2)

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Arends, T. C.

K. A. Haines, W. S. Colburn, T. C. Arends, E. T. Kurtzner, “Applications of Photopolymer Holography,” presented at IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Application, Washington, D.C. (4 June 1971).

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, Appl. Opt. 11, 2994 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Booth, “Photopolymer Holographic Material,” presented at OSA Meeting, Rochester, N.Y. (12 October 1973).

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Colburn, W. S.

W. S. Colburn, K. A. Haines, Appl. Opt. 10, 1636 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Haines, W. S. Colburn, T. C. Arends, E. T. Kurtzner, “Applications of Photopolymer Holography,” presented at IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Application, Washington, D.C. (4 June 1971).

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Haines, K. A.

W. S. Colburn, K. A. Haines, Appl. Opt. 10, 1636 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Haines, W. S. Colburn, T. C. Arends, E. T. Kurtzner, “Applications of Photopolymer Holography,” presented at IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Application, Washington, D.C. (4 June 1971).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kurtzner, E. T.

K. A. Haines, W. S. Colburn, T. C. Arends, E. T. Kurtzner, “Applications of Photopolymer Holography,” presented at IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Application, Washington, D.C. (4 June 1971).

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Pampalone, T. R.

Urbach, J. C.

J. C. Urbach, “Advances in Hologram Recording Materials,” in Developments of Holography, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Seminar in Depth (1971), Vol. 25, p. 17.
[CrossRef]

Wopschall, R. H.

R. H. Wopschall, T. R. Pampalone, Appl. Opt. 11, 2096 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Wopschall, “Dry Photopolymer Film for Recording Holograms,” presented at OSA Meeting, Tucson, Arizona (5 April 1971).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Other (6)

B. L. Booth, “Photopolymer Holographic Material,” presented at OSA Meeting, Rochester, N.Y. (12 October 1973).

U.S. Patent3,658,526 Hologram Recording in Photopolymerizable Layers. Inventor: E. F. Haugh, assigned to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 25August1969, issued 25 April 1972.

K. A. Haines, W. S. Colburn, T. C. Arends, E. T. Kurtzner, “Applications of Photopolymer Holography,” presented at IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Application, Washington, D.C. (4 June 1971).

R. H. Wopschall, “Dry Photopolymer Film for Recording Holograms,” presented at OSA Meeting, Tucson, Arizona (5 April 1971).

J. C. Urbach, “Advances in Hologram Recording Materials,” in Developments of Holography, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Seminar in Depth (1971), Vol. 25, p. 17.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Top) The diffraction efficiency monitored during exposure for different spatial frequencies. Higher spatial frequencies with shorter distances between exposed regions have a faster diffusion rate. (Bottom) The diffusion time at half-height from above depends linearly on the square of the diffusion distance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating formation response differs with composition changes. All exposures are for 2 sec with a sweep rate of 50 sec/cm. The abrupt change is the postexposure using one of two interfering beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The final diffraction efficiency depends on postexposure delay times as shown by three exposure times of 0.85 sec, 1.2 sec, and 4.0 sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The diffraction efficiency response during exposure depends on the power density. The exposure energy is nearly constant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency response during exposure for a series of different temperatures shows an increase in diffusion rate at higher temperatures but no trend in final diffraction efficiency.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Final diffraction efficiency rotation diagrams at λR = 632.8 nm for different exposure times. Exposures are an example of a slightly undermodulated material. The angular width at 50% ηmax is approximately 1°. Standard conditions (see text) were used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Identical grating series as in Fig. 6 except the readout wavelength λR = 441.6 nm. All points except the first two are overmodulated rotation plots with large sidebands.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Final diffraction efficiency for exposure times under standard 2× conditions, 50 μm thick, and several readout wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Final diffraction efficiency for exposure times under standard 2× conditions, 100 μm thick, and different readout wavelengths.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Final diffraction efficiency for exposure times understandard conditions with composition variations and 50 μm thick material.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Final diffraction efficiency for different spatial frequencies under standard conditions. (Diffraction efficiency values in parentheses indicate overmodulated material.) The top curve is for 100 μm, the bottom for approximately 50-μm material. Apparent upper limit near 3000 l/mm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Final diffraction efficiency for exposure times under standard conditions at different beam ratios.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Diffraction efficiency values derived from Kogelnik’s theory depend as shown on angular width Δθ1/2 in degrees at half ηmax times the effective thickness de in meters times the spatial frequency fs in l/m. Diffraction efficiency in parentheses is for overmodulated values.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Physical thickness d vs the effective thickness de obtained from the analysis indicates that the grating does not penetrate through the material.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Increasing spatial frequency or equivalently the decrease in reciprocal spatial frequency decreases the angular width Δθ1/2 at 50% ηmax as shown.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

The index modulation n1 decreases with beam ratio according to the solid curves. The diffraction efficiency on the right side decreases with beam ratio according to the dashed curve. Data is for sample shown in Fig. 12. Different readout wavelengths affect n1 as shown by the solid curves. Plotting the data on a semilog plot of ln n1 vs beam ratio R yields a nearly straight line.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Final diffraction efficiency for different exposure power densities shows a linear region and a threshold. Values in parentheses are overmodulated. Pre-exposure with uv treatment lowers the threshold power required for exposure by a factor of 10. Oxygen diffusion into the material may be responsible for this diffraction efficiency dependence on power density.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Real-time and double-exposure interferometry are compared. See text for details.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

A photograph of an original silver halide hologram on the left is compared to a photopolymer copy. The real image was projected through the photopolymer during copy construction. Photograph exposure times were 0.1 sec and 0.04 sec with the same reconstruction beam for the silver halide original and photopolymer copy, respectively. Thus the copy had at least two times the diffraction efficiency. The resolution was identical in both. The copy was made with an exposure time of 20 sec with nearly instant playback.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = sin 2 ( ν 2 + ζ 2 ) 1 / 2 / ( 1 + ζ 2 / ν 2 ) ,
ζ = Δ θ π d e / 2 λ
ν = π n 1 d e / λ R ( 1 λ R 2 sin 2 θ c / n 2 λ c 2 ) 1 / 2 = X n 1 d e ,
ζ 1 / 2 = π Δ θ 1 / 2 ( d e sin θ / λ c ) = ( π / 2 ) Δ θ 1 / 2 d e f s ,

Metrics