Abstract

A new gas filter correlation spectrometer (gaspec), for the remote detection of trace vapors in the atmosphere by means of natural emission in the ir, is described. Unique optical features of the gaspec include two detectors using a single focal plane chopper plus an optical reference for electronic gain balancing. Continuous sensor balance and calibration are achieved along with the source radiometric and target gas information. Several gaspec instruments have been built and tested including devices to sense CH4, C2H6, HCl, and CO. Some preliminary data taken with these sensors are presented.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Hassel, B. Schackman, F. D. Clark, C. H. Prokesh, J. B. Taylor, W. M. Watson, L. Charey, Appl. Opt. 9, 1767 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. S. Newcomb, M. M. Millan, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-8, 149 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Q. Wark, Appl. Opt. 9, 1861 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Hanst, in Advances in Environmental Sciences and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. Metcalfe, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, p. 91.
  6. Remote Measurement of Pollutants, NASA Special Publication 285 (1971).
  7. R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).
  8. R. M. Goody, W. T. Roach, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 217 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Hunten, H. N. Rundle, G. G. Shepherd, A. Vallance Jones, Appl. Opt. 6, 1609 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. W. P. Cann, R. W. Nicholls, Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Fort Collins, Colorado (7 August 1972).
  11. S. N. Tiwari, H. G. Reichle, AIAA/ASME Thermoplastics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston (July 1974).
  12. J. T. Houghton, S. D. Smith, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A320, 23 (1970).
  13. C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmus, E. R. Bartle, Appl. Opt. 13, 1494 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Snider, E. R. Westwater, in Remote Sensing of the TroposphereV. E. Derr, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1972), Chap. 15.
  15. R. Herman, R. F. Wallis, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 637 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).
  17. J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. R. Bartle, E. A. Meckstroth, S. Kays, AFRPL TR-71-59 (1971).
  19. K. F. Luft, J. Tech. Phys. 24, 97 (1943).
  20. A. E. Martin, Research 6, 172 (1953).
  21. S. D. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, in Proc. XIII Int. Symp. Liege (June, 1963).
  22. R. Goody, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 900 (1958).
    [CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Remote Measurement of Pollutants, NASA Special Publication 285 (1971).

1970 (4)

G. S. Newcomb, M. M. Millan, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-8, 149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Wark, Appl. Opt. 9, 1861 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hassel, B. Schackman, F. D. Clark, C. H. Prokesh, J. B. Taylor, W. M. Watson, L. Charey, Appl. Opt. 9, 1767 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Houghton, S. D. Smith, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A320, 23 (1970).

1967 (1)

1963 (2)

J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, in Proc. XIII Int. Symp. Liege (June, 1963).

1958 (1)

1956 (1)

R. M. Goody, W. T. Roach, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 217 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

R. Herman, R. F. Wallis, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 637 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

A. E. Martin, Research 6, 172 (1953).

1943 (1)

K. F. Luft, J. Tech. Phys. 24, 97 (1943).

Barnett, J. J.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bartle, E. R.

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmus, E. R. Bartle, Appl. Opt. 13, 1494 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Bartle, E. A. Meckstroth, S. Kays, AFRPL TR-71-59 (1971).

Bortner, M. H.

R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).

Breeze, J. C.

J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cann, M. W. P.

M. W. P. Cann, R. W. Nicholls, Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Fort Collins, Colorado (7 August 1972).

Charey, L.

Clark, F. D.

Cross, M. J.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. H.

R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).

Dick, R.

R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).

Ferriso, C. C.

J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R.

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, W. T. Roach, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 217 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Grenda, R. N.

R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).

Griggs, M.

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, in Advances in Environmental Sciences and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. Metcalfe, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, p. 91.

Harwood, R. S.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hassel, R. A.

Herman, R.

R. Herman, R. F. Wallis, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 637 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, J. T.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Houghton, S. D. Smith, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A320, 23 (1970).

Hunten, D. M.

Kays, S.

E. R. Bartle, E. A. Meckstroth, S. Kays, AFRPL TR-71-59 (1971).

LeBel, P. I.

R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).

Ludwig, C. B.

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmus, E. R. Bartle, Appl. Opt. 13, 1494 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Luft, K. F.

K. F. Luft, J. Tech. Phys. 24, 97 (1943).

Malkmus, W.

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmus, E. R. Bartle, Appl. Opt. 13, 1494 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A. E.

A. E. Martin, Research 6, 172 (1953).

Meckstroth, E. A.

E. R. Bartle, E. A. Meckstroth, S. Kays, AFRPL TR-71-59 (1971).

Millan, M. M.

G. S. Newcomb, M. M. Millan, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-8, 149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, C. G.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Newcomb, G. S.

G. S. Newcomb, M. M. Millan, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-8, 149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, R. W.

M. W. P. Cann, R. W. Nicholls, Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Fort Collins, Colorado (7 August 1972).

Peckham, G. E.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Penner, S. S.

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

Pidgeon, C. R.

S. D. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, in Proc. XIII Int. Symp. Liege (June, 1963).

Prokesh, C. H.

Reichle, H. G.

S. N. Tiwari, H. G. Reichle, AIAA/ASME Thermoplastics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston (July 1974).

Roach, W. T.

R. M. Goody, W. T. Roach, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 217 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, C. D.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rundle, H. N.

Schackman, B.

Shepherd, G. G.

Smith, S. D.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Houghton, S. D. Smith, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A320, 23 (1970).

S. D. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, in Proc. XIII Int. Symp. Liege (June, 1963).

Snider, J. B.

J. B. Snider, E. R. Westwater, in Remote Sensing of the TroposphereV. E. Derr, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1972), Chap. 15.

Taylor, J. B.

Tiwari, S. N.

S. N. Tiwari, H. G. Reichle, AIAA/ASME Thermoplastics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston (July 1974).

Vallance Jones, A.

Wallis, R. F.

R. Herman, R. F. Wallis, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 637 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Wark, D. Q.

D. Q. Wark, Appl. Opt. 9, 1861 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Watson, W. M.

Westwater, E. R.

J. B. Snider, E. R. Westwater, in Remote Sensing of the TroposphereV. E. Derr, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1972), Chap. 15.

Williamson, E. J.

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. (1)

G. S. Newcomb, M. M. Millan, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-8, 149 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. Herman, R. F. Wallis, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 637 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Breeze, C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 402 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Tech. Phys. (1)

K. F. Luft, J. Tech. Phys. 24, 97 (1943).

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

J. T. Houghton, S. D. Smith, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A320, 23 (1970).

Proc. XIII Int. Symp. Liege (1)

S. D. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, in Proc. XIII Int. Symp. Liege (June, 1963).

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

R. M. Goody, W. T. Roach, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 217 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Barnett, M. J. Cross, R. S. Harwood, J. T. Houghton, C. G. Morgan, G. E. Peckham, C. D. Rogers, S. D. Smith, E. J. Williamson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 17 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Remote Measurement of Pollutants, NASA Special Publication 285 (1)

Remote Measurement of Pollutants, NASA Special Publication 285 (1971).

Research (1)

A. E. Martin, Research 6, 172 (1953).

Other (7)

R. N. Grenda, M. H. Bortner, P. I. LeBel, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Joint Conf. on Sensing of Environmental Pollution, Palo Alto (1971).

P. L. Hanst, in Advances in Environmental Sciences and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. Metcalfe, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, p. 91.

E. R. Bartle, E. A. Meckstroth, S. Kays, AFRPL TR-71-59 (1971).

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

J. B. Snider, E. R. Westwater, in Remote Sensing of the TroposphereV. E. Derr, Ed. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1972), Chap. 15.

M. W. P. Cann, R. W. Nicholls, Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Fort Collins, Colorado (7 August 1972).

S. N. Tiwari, H. G. Reichle, AIAA/ASME Thermoplastics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston (July 1974).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of gaspec.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electronic signal processing block diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

S1S2 balance as the blackbody source temperature is cycled.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

S1S2 balance as blackbody source temperature is cycled.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensor CO response with an active hot source of 61°C. The response curve of growth shows the anticipated nonlinearity as the optical depth of gas becomes large.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Instrument interferent rejection to CO2, which is a potential interferent to CO at 4.6 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Truck mounted CO response from a vertical looking sensor. These results were from survey of the metropolitan area of Toronto, Ontario, in July 1974.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CH4 survey of a natural gas plant with a vertical looking gaspec from a truck mounted platform.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I gaspec Specifications

Equations (6)

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I ( ν ) = s ( ν ) B s ( ν , T s ) T r ( ν , h s ) + h s h m B A [ ν , T A ( h ) ] T r h ( ν , h ) d h ,
E A ( ν ) = s m π α α 2 + ( ν ν 0 ) 2 .
α = α 0 ( P P 0 ) n ( T 0 T ) m ,
S m ( ν ) = | m | S b exp [ E ( J ) ] k T ν ν ¯ F ( m ) Q J ( V , T ) ,
S b = 8 Π 3 ν ¯ 3 h c | R V V | 2 N V
Δ S = S 1 S 2 , Δ S = A Ω τ 0 ν [ I ν ( S ) τ c 1 I ν ( S ) τ c 2 ] F ( ν ) d ν ,

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