Abstract

The influence of the bottom albedo on the diffuse reflectance of a flat, homogeneous ocean is computed as a function of bottom depth and albedo for three oceanic scattering phase functions and several values of ω0. The results show that the bottom can have a large effect on the reflectivity, especially for small optical depths. When combined with the observed optical properties of clear natural water, the calculations are shown to be in good agreement with the observed dependence of in-water nadir radiance spectra, with depth. The apparent independence of the reflectance on the mode of illumination observed earlier for the infinitely deep ocean is found to be invalid for a shallow ocean. The effect of departures of the bottom law of diffuse reflectance from Lambertian is investigated and shown to be considerable in some cases.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, Appl. Opt. 12, 1549 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. C. Freden, E. P. Mercanti, M. A. Beckek, Eds., Symposium on Significant Results Obtained from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (National Aeronautics and Space Administration SP-327, 1973), Vol. 1, Sec. B.
  3. H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 12, 2803 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).
  5. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, Appl. Opt. 8, 455 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Oceanog. 2, 139 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Calculations have been carried out for ω0 = 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.85, and 0.9, as well as those listed, and also for τB = 5. The results of these calculations are available in tabular form on request.
  8. J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 83 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. These are discussed in Ref. 8.

1973 (2)

1972 (2)

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 83 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Oceanog. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

1963 (1)

Appl. Opt. (3)

Deep Sea Res. (1)

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Oceanog. (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Oceanog. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Calculations have been carried out for ω0 = 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.85, and 0.9, as well as those listed, and also for τB = 5. The results of these calculations are available in tabular form on request.

These are discussed in Ref. 8.

S. C. Freden, E. P. Mercanti, M. A. Beckek, Eds., Symposium on Significant Results Obtained from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (National Aeronautics and Space Administration SP-327, 1973), Vol. 1, Sec. B.

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