Abstract

The current status of the heat pipe is discussed with particular emphasis on applications to cryogenic thermal control. The competitive nature of the passive heat pipe/radiator system is demonstrated through a comparative study with other candidate systems for a 1-yr mission. The mission involves cooling a spaceborne experiment to 100 K while it dissipates 10 W.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Gabron, J. E. McCullough, R. L. Merriam, “Development of a Spaceborne Radiator for Detector Cooling,” IRIS National Symposium, 1972.
  2. Los Alamos report No. LA-4746-MS, 1971.
  3. D. K. Amand, “Heat Pipe Applications to a Gravity-Gradient Satellite (Explorer XXXVI),” Proc. Aviat. Space Conf., Los Angeles, Calif.1968.
  4. R. McIntosh, G. Knowles, R. Hembach, “Sounding Rocket Heat Pipe Experiment,” AIAA Pap. 72-259 (1972).
  5. W. Harwell, F. Edelstein, R. McIntosh, S. Ollendorf, “Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Heat Pipe Flight Performance Data,” AIAA Pap. 73-758 (1973).
  6. M. E. Berger, W. H. Kelly, “Application of Heat Pipes to the ATS-F Spacecraft,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-46 (1973).
  7. B. D. Marcus, “Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE), Experiment Description Document,” TRW Document No. 13111-6033-RO-00, Contract NAS2-5503, 1972.
  8. J. P. Kirkpatrick, P. J. Brennan, “Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment, AIAA Pap. 73-757 (1973).
  9. D. O. Murray, W. G. Foster, “A Cryogenic Heat Pipe for Satellite Sensor Cooling,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-50 (1973).
  10. J. P. Wright, W. R. Pence, “Development of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe Radiator for a Detector Cooling System,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-47 (1973).
  11. M. Donabedian, “Survey of Cryogenic Cooling Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0073 (3901-01)-1, October1972.
  12. B. Shelpuk, M. S. Crouthamel, A. Amith, M. Yim, RCA Corp., “Low Temperature Solid State Cooling Technology,” AFFDL-TR-68-128, August1968.
  13. P. B. Glick, R. Marlow, Nuclear Systems, Inc., “Low Temperature Thermoelectric Cooler for Operation at 145°K,” AD-875-928, July1970.
  14. H. L. Jensen, “Handbook of External Refrigeration Systems for Long Term Cryogenic Storage,” Lockheed Missiles and Space Company Report LMSC-A984158, 22February1971.
  15. J. G. Daunt et al., Stevens Institute of Technology, “Miniature Cryogenic Refrigerators,” AD-697-972, August1969.
  16. B. E. Nelson, W. Petrie, “Experimental Evaluation of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe/Radiator in a Vacuum Chamber,” presented at the First International Heat Pipe Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, October 1973.

Amand, D. K.

D. K. Amand, “Heat Pipe Applications to a Gravity-Gradient Satellite (Explorer XXXVI),” Proc. Aviat. Space Conf., Los Angeles, Calif.1968.

Amith, A.

B. Shelpuk, M. S. Crouthamel, A. Amith, M. Yim, RCA Corp., “Low Temperature Solid State Cooling Technology,” AFFDL-TR-68-128, August1968.

Berger, M. E.

M. E. Berger, W. H. Kelly, “Application of Heat Pipes to the ATS-F Spacecraft,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-46 (1973).

Brennan, P. J.

J. P. Kirkpatrick, P. J. Brennan, “Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment, AIAA Pap. 73-757 (1973).

Crouthamel, M. S.

B. Shelpuk, M. S. Crouthamel, A. Amith, M. Yim, RCA Corp., “Low Temperature Solid State Cooling Technology,” AFFDL-TR-68-128, August1968.

Daunt, J. G.

J. G. Daunt et al., Stevens Institute of Technology, “Miniature Cryogenic Refrigerators,” AD-697-972, August1969.

Donabedian, M.

M. Donabedian, “Survey of Cryogenic Cooling Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0073 (3901-01)-1, October1972.

Edelstein, F.

W. Harwell, F. Edelstein, R. McIntosh, S. Ollendorf, “Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Heat Pipe Flight Performance Data,” AIAA Pap. 73-758 (1973).

Foster, W. G.

D. O. Murray, W. G. Foster, “A Cryogenic Heat Pipe for Satellite Sensor Cooling,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-50 (1973).

Gabron, F.

F. Gabron, J. E. McCullough, R. L. Merriam, “Development of a Spaceborne Radiator for Detector Cooling,” IRIS National Symposium, 1972.

Glick, P. B.

P. B. Glick, R. Marlow, Nuclear Systems, Inc., “Low Temperature Thermoelectric Cooler for Operation at 145°K,” AD-875-928, July1970.

Harwell, W.

W. Harwell, F. Edelstein, R. McIntosh, S. Ollendorf, “Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Heat Pipe Flight Performance Data,” AIAA Pap. 73-758 (1973).

Hembach, R.

R. McIntosh, G. Knowles, R. Hembach, “Sounding Rocket Heat Pipe Experiment,” AIAA Pap. 72-259 (1972).

Jensen, H. L.

H. L. Jensen, “Handbook of External Refrigeration Systems for Long Term Cryogenic Storage,” Lockheed Missiles and Space Company Report LMSC-A984158, 22February1971.

Kelly, W. H.

M. E. Berger, W. H. Kelly, “Application of Heat Pipes to the ATS-F Spacecraft,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-46 (1973).

Kirkpatrick, J. P.

J. P. Kirkpatrick, P. J. Brennan, “Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment, AIAA Pap. 73-757 (1973).

Knowles, G.

R. McIntosh, G. Knowles, R. Hembach, “Sounding Rocket Heat Pipe Experiment,” AIAA Pap. 72-259 (1972).

Marcus, B. D.

B. D. Marcus, “Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE), Experiment Description Document,” TRW Document No. 13111-6033-RO-00, Contract NAS2-5503, 1972.

Marlow, R.

P. B. Glick, R. Marlow, Nuclear Systems, Inc., “Low Temperature Thermoelectric Cooler for Operation at 145°K,” AD-875-928, July1970.

McCullough, J. E.

F. Gabron, J. E. McCullough, R. L. Merriam, “Development of a Spaceborne Radiator for Detector Cooling,” IRIS National Symposium, 1972.

McIntosh, R.

R. McIntosh, G. Knowles, R. Hembach, “Sounding Rocket Heat Pipe Experiment,” AIAA Pap. 72-259 (1972).

W. Harwell, F. Edelstein, R. McIntosh, S. Ollendorf, “Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Heat Pipe Flight Performance Data,” AIAA Pap. 73-758 (1973).

Merriam, R. L.

F. Gabron, J. E. McCullough, R. L. Merriam, “Development of a Spaceborne Radiator for Detector Cooling,” IRIS National Symposium, 1972.

Murray, D. O.

D. O. Murray, W. G. Foster, “A Cryogenic Heat Pipe for Satellite Sensor Cooling,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-50 (1973).

Nelson, B. E.

B. E. Nelson, W. Petrie, “Experimental Evaluation of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe/Radiator in a Vacuum Chamber,” presented at the First International Heat Pipe Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, October 1973.

Ollendorf, S.

W. Harwell, F. Edelstein, R. McIntosh, S. Ollendorf, “Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Heat Pipe Flight Performance Data,” AIAA Pap. 73-758 (1973).

Pence, W. R.

J. P. Wright, W. R. Pence, “Development of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe Radiator for a Detector Cooling System,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-47 (1973).

Petrie, W.

B. E. Nelson, W. Petrie, “Experimental Evaluation of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe/Radiator in a Vacuum Chamber,” presented at the First International Heat Pipe Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, October 1973.

Shelpuk, B.

B. Shelpuk, M. S. Crouthamel, A. Amith, M. Yim, RCA Corp., “Low Temperature Solid State Cooling Technology,” AFFDL-TR-68-128, August1968.

Wright, J. P.

J. P. Wright, W. R. Pence, “Development of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe Radiator for a Detector Cooling System,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-47 (1973).

Yim, M.

B. Shelpuk, M. S. Crouthamel, A. Amith, M. Yim, RCA Corp., “Low Temperature Solid State Cooling Technology,” AFFDL-TR-68-128, August1968.

Other (16)

F. Gabron, J. E. McCullough, R. L. Merriam, “Development of a Spaceborne Radiator for Detector Cooling,” IRIS National Symposium, 1972.

Los Alamos report No. LA-4746-MS, 1971.

D. K. Amand, “Heat Pipe Applications to a Gravity-Gradient Satellite (Explorer XXXVI),” Proc. Aviat. Space Conf., Los Angeles, Calif.1968.

R. McIntosh, G. Knowles, R. Hembach, “Sounding Rocket Heat Pipe Experiment,” AIAA Pap. 72-259 (1972).

W. Harwell, F. Edelstein, R. McIntosh, S. Ollendorf, “Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Heat Pipe Flight Performance Data,” AIAA Pap. 73-758 (1973).

M. E. Berger, W. H. Kelly, “Application of Heat Pipes to the ATS-F Spacecraft,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-46 (1973).

B. D. Marcus, “Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE), Experiment Description Document,” TRW Document No. 13111-6033-RO-00, Contract NAS2-5503, 1972.

J. P. Kirkpatrick, P. J. Brennan, “Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment, AIAA Pap. 73-757 (1973).

D. O. Murray, W. G. Foster, “A Cryogenic Heat Pipe for Satellite Sensor Cooling,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-50 (1973).

J. P. Wright, W. R. Pence, “Development of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe Radiator for a Detector Cooling System,” Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap. 73-ENAs-47 (1973).

M. Donabedian, “Survey of Cryogenic Cooling Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0073 (3901-01)-1, October1972.

B. Shelpuk, M. S. Crouthamel, A. Amith, M. Yim, RCA Corp., “Low Temperature Solid State Cooling Technology,” AFFDL-TR-68-128, August1968.

P. B. Glick, R. Marlow, Nuclear Systems, Inc., “Low Temperature Thermoelectric Cooler for Operation at 145°K,” AD-875-928, July1970.

H. L. Jensen, “Handbook of External Refrigeration Systems for Long Term Cryogenic Storage,” Lockheed Missiles and Space Company Report LMSC-A984158, 22February1971.

J. G. Daunt et al., Stevens Institute of Technology, “Miniature Cryogenic Refrigerators,” AD-697-972, August1969.

B. E. Nelson, W. Petrie, “Experimental Evaluation of a Cryogenic Heat Pipe/Radiator in a Vacuum Chamber,” presented at the First International Heat Pipe Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, October 1973.

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Tables (2)

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Table I Characteristics of Cryogenic Thermal Control Systems

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Table II Weight Summary of Cryogenic Cooling Systems for 1-Yr Mission Cooling 10 W at 100 K

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