Abstract

Advantages of pressure scanning over other methods of tuning the wavelength of dye lasers are discussed. The construction of a pressure scanned high resolution dye laser is described. The laser has a scan range of more than 40 cm−1 in its intermediate resolution mode, an improvement on the order of a hundredfold over previous methods of tuning. Preliminary tests have indicated a scan range of 4 cm−1 in the high resolution mode. As a demonstration of its applicability and versatility, the laser was used to resolve the ground state splitting of the chromium isotopes in ruby.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Nature 235, 63 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. S. Shahin, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 8, 312 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Schenck, R. C. Hilborn, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 189 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. A. Erdmann, H. Tigger, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 6, 166 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Haroche, J. A. Paisner, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Hercher, H. A. Pike, Opt. Commun. 3, 65 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Opt. 11, 895 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. A. Gale, Opt. Commun. 7, 86 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. D. Johnston, P. K. Runge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 724 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. G. Hirschberg, R. R. Kadesch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 177 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Mack, D. P. Mc Nutt, F. L. Roesler, R. Chabbal, Appl. Opt. 2, 873 (1963).
  14. A. A. Wyller, T. Fay, Appl. Opt. 11, 1152 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Caplan, Appl. Opt. 11, 1978 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. At the time of the preparation of this manuscript, however, we have been informed that a pressure scanned tunable dye laser has also been operated successfully by R. Wallenstein, T. W. Hänsch, Department of Physics, Stanford University. Appl. Opt. (to be published). The system described here differs in several respects.
  17. A. L. Schawlow, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Paris, P. Grivet, N. Bloemergen, Eds. (Columbia U. P., New York, 1964).
  18. G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Sulfur hexafluoride has a refractivity about 2.6 times the refractivity of dry N2. Gases of even higher refractivity include Freon and Propane.
  20. Made by Owens-Illinois, Inc., Toledo, Ohio.
  21. Made by Corning Glass Works, Corning, New York.
  22. This is a method commonly used in classical multietalon spectrometers such as PEPSIOS. See Ref. 13.
  23. E. R. Peck, B. N. Khanna, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1059 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. M. Curry, R. Cubeddu, T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. 1, 153 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. H. Rank, J. N. Shearer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 463 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Szabo, Opt. Commun. 5, 287 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. A. Riseberg, Phys. Rev. A 7, 671 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1973 (7)

I. S. Shahin, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 8, 312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Schenck, R. C. Hilborn, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. Haroche, J. A. Paisner, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Gale, Opt. Commun. 7, 86 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Curry, R. Cubeddu, T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. 1, 153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Riseberg, Phys. Rev. A 7, 671 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (7)

A. Szabo, Opt. Commun. 5, 287 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Opt. 11, 895 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Wyller, T. Fay, Appl. Opt. 11, 1152 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Caplan, Appl. Opt. 11, 1978 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Johnston, P. K. Runge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Erdmann, H. Tigger, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 6, 166 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Nature 235, 63 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Hercher, H. A. Pike, Opt. Commun. 3, 65 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1958 (1)

1956 (1)

Caplan, J.

Chabbal, R.

Cubeddu, R.

S. M. Curry, R. Cubeddu, T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. 1, 153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Curry, S. M.

S. M. Curry, R. Cubeddu, T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. 1, 153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, G. E.

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, T. A.

T. A. Erdmann, H. Tigger, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 6, 166 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fay, T.

Gale, C. A.

C. A. Gale, Opt. Commun. 7, 86 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

I. S. Shahin, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 8, 312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Curry, R. Cubeddu, T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. 1, 153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Opt. 11, 895 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Nature 235, 63 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971).
[CrossRef]

At the time of the preparation of this manuscript, however, we have been informed that a pressure scanned tunable dye laser has also been operated successfully by R. Wallenstein, T. W. Hänsch, Department of Physics, Stanford University. Appl. Opt. (to be published). The system described here differs in several respects.

Haroche, S.

S. Haroche, J. A. Paisner, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher, H. A. Pike, Opt. Commun. 3, 65 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hilborn, R. C.

P. Schenck, R. C. Hilborn, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hirschberg, J. G.

Imbusch, G. F.

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, W. D.

W. D. Johnston, P. K. Runge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kadesch, R. R.

Khanna, B. N.

Lange, W.

W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Luther, J.

W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. E.

Mc Nutt, D. P.

Metcalf, H.

P. Schenck, R. C. Hilborn, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nottbeck, B.

W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Paisner, J. A.

S. Haroche, J. A. Paisner, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Peck, E. R.

Pike, H. A.

M. Hercher, H. A. Pike, Opt. Commun. 3, 65 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rank, D. H.

Remeika, J. P.

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg, Phys. Rev. A 7, 671 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Runge, P. K.

W. D. Johnston, P. K. Runge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

S. Haroche, J. A. Paisner, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Nature 235, 63 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Paris, P. Grivet, N. Bloemergen, Eds. (Columbia U. P., New York, 1964).

Schenck, P.

P. Schenck, R. C. Hilborn, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, H. W.

W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shahin, I. S.

I. S. Shahin, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 8, 312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Nature 235, 63 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shearer, J. N.

Szabo, A.

A. Szabo, Opt. Commun. 5, 287 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tigger, H.

T. A. Erdmann, H. Tigger, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 6, 166 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

At the time of the preparation of this manuscript, however, we have been informed that a pressure scanned tunable dye laser has also been operated successfully by R. Wallenstein, T. W. Hänsch, Department of Physics, Stanford University. Appl. Opt. (to be published). The system described here differs in several respects.

Walther, H.

T. A. Erdmann, H. Tigger, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 6, 166 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wyller, A. A.

Yen, W. M.

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. (1)

S. M. Curry, R. Cubeddu, T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. 1, 153 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. D. Johnston, P. K. Runge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Nature (1)

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Nature 235, 63 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (6)

I. S. Shahin, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 8, 312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Erdmann, H. Tigger, H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 6, 166 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Gale, Opt. Commun. 7, 86 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Lange, J. Luther, B. Nottbeck, H. W. Schroder, Opt. Commun. 8, 157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Hercher, H. A. Pike, Opt. Commun. 3, 65 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Szabo, Opt. Commun. 5, 287 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. F. Imbusch, W. M. Yen, A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, J. P. Remeika, Phys. Rev. 136, A481 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. A. Riseberg, Phys. Rev. A 7, 671 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. W. Hänsch, I. S. Shahin, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 707 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Haroche, J. A. Paisner, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 948 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Schenck, R. C. Hilborn, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Sulfur hexafluoride has a refractivity about 2.6 times the refractivity of dry N2. Gases of even higher refractivity include Freon and Propane.

Made by Owens-Illinois, Inc., Toledo, Ohio.

Made by Corning Glass Works, Corning, New York.

This is a method commonly used in classical multietalon spectrometers such as PEPSIOS. See Ref. 13.

At the time of the preparation of this manuscript, however, we have been informed that a pressure scanned tunable dye laser has also been operated successfully by R. Wallenstein, T. W. Hänsch, Department of Physics, Stanford University. Appl. Opt. (to be published). The system described here differs in several respects.

A. L. Schawlow, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Paris, P. Grivet, N. Bloemergen, Eds. (Columbia U. P., New York, 1964).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the dye laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of the main pressure chamber: (A) plate on which all the optical components are mounted; (B) plate that supports the pressure chamber as a whole. Both plates have point-line-plane suspensions that are exactly on top of each other; (C) grating; (D) air-spaced Fabry-Perot interferometer; (E) telescope; (F) fused silica window; (G) indium seal; (H) annealed copper ring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of the extracavity confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer: (A) commercial mirror holders made out of stainless steel, which contain the spherical mirrors B; (B) spherical mirrors; (C) springs pushing the two mirror holders A against the Invar pieces D and E, respectively; (D) adjustable part of Fabry-Perot, allows fine adjustment of the mirror spacing; (E) fixed part of Fabry-Perot; (F) springs taking up the play in the threads of pieces D and E; (G) pressure chamber; (H) windows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output of the dye laser in its intermediate resolution mode, as monitored with a piezoelectrically scanned confocal Fabry-Perot of 8-GHz free spectral range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output of the dye laser in its high resolution mode. It is monitored with the laser slowly scanning across four orders of a stationary confocal Fabry-Perot of 2-GHz free spectral range.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The R1 line of ruby at 6934 Å, taken in absorption and with the laser in its intermediate resolution mode. The insert shows the corresponding energy diagram.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( 2 G sin θ ) / k = λ ( p ) / n ( p )
( 2 D cos θ ) / 1 = λ ( p ) / n ( p )
4 R / m = λ ( p ) / n ( p )
n ( p ) = 1 + 0 ( p / p 0 ) ,
λ ( p ) / n ( p ) = λ 0 / n 0 .
0 = 6.497378 × 10 5 + 3.0738649 × 10 2 144 σ 2 × 10 8 .
d σ d p = σ 0 n 0 0 n 2 p 0 4.061 cm 1 / atm = 8.284 GHz / psi

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