Abstract

A new technique for measuring reflectivity differences between two samples is reported. An electrically driven tuning fork is used to place the two samples alternately in the beam of a reflectometer, and a lock-in amplifier is used for detection of the difference signal. Advantages of this system include short deadtime, vacuum operation, and extremely high Q. The sensitivity is such that changes in reflectivity of the order of 0.001% can be observed.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Beaglehole, Applied Optics 1, 11 (1968).
  2. J. A. Holbrook, R. E. Hummel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 463 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 16, 82 (1971).
  5. M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1969), p. 99.
  6. R. E. Hummel, J. B. Andrews, Phys. Rev. B8, 2449 (1973).
  7. W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Phys. Rev. B9, 1115 (1974).

1974 (1)

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Phys. Rev. B9, 1115 (1974).

1973 (2)

R. E. Hummel, J. B. Andrews, Phys. Rev. B8, 2449 (1973).

J. A. Holbrook, R. E. Hummel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 463 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 16, 82 (1971).

1969 (1)

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

D. Beaglehole, Applied Optics 1, 11 (1968).

Andrews, J. B.

R. E. Hummel, J. B. Andrews, Phys. Rev. B8, 2449 (1973).

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole, Applied Optics 1, 11 (1968).

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1969), p. 99.

Holbrook, J. A.

J. A. Holbrook, R. E. Hummel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 463 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hummel, R. E.

J. A. Holbrook, R. E. Hummel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 463 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hummel, J. B. Andrews, Phys. Rev. B8, 2449 (1973).

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Muldawer, L.

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Phys. Rev. B9, 1115 (1974).

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 16, 82 (1971).

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Scott, W. R.

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Phys. Rev. B9, 1115 (1974).

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 16, 82 (1971).

Applied Optics (1)

D. Beaglehole, Applied Optics 1, 11 (1968).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 16, 82 (1971).

Phys. Rev. (3)

R. E. Hummel, J. B. Andrews, Phys. Rev. B8, 2449 (1973).

W. R. Scott, L. Muldawer, Phys. Rev. B9, 1115 (1974).

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. A. Holbrook, R. E. Hummel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 463 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1969), p. 99.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus used for measuring reflectivity differences. Shown are electrically driven tuning fork and samples S1 and S2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ΔR/R spectrum for annealed films of copper and 5 at.% Al copper–aluminum.

Equations (2)

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Δ R / R = I ac / I dc .
( Δ R R ) cal = R 1 R 2 1 2 ( R 1 + R 2 ) R 1 1 2 R 1 = 2.

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