Abstract

The electron lithographic fabrication of high quality diffraction gratings with periods in the 0.25-μm < a0 < 1.5-μm range is reported. The negative electron resist employed is a copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate and ethyl acrylate with a sensitivity about 15 times better than that of poly(methyl methacrylate), a positive resist. A new scan generator with linearity accurate to 1 part in 104 and locked onto the 60-Hz power supplies is described. Gratings with up to 3000 lines were fabricated with long range order Δa0/a0 ≤ 5 × 10−4. The use of the negative resist gratings as couplers for thin-slab dielectric waveguides is demonstrated. It was found that efficienciesup to 20% could be obtained in the range 0.5 < λ0/a0 < 1.1.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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