Abstract

A spectroscopic system using a pulsed dye laser to measure Raman scattering and luminescence spectra in solids is described. The dye laser, which is pumped by a pulsed nitrogen laser, is capable of being continuously tuned throughout the visible and near ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. The detection system uses gated photon counting, synchronized to the laser pulses. The apparatus combines a greater tuning range than that obtained using cw dye lasers with enhanced sensitivity over pulsed systems using analogue detection.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. P. Yaney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1297 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. I. Levatter, R. L. Sandstrom, S.-C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3273 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Cardona, Surf. Sci. 37, 100 (1973), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Malm, R. R. Haering, Can. J. Phys. 49, 2432 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Oka, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 33, 1372 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. I. Bell, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, Solid State Commun. 13, 1833 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Opt. 11, 895 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Shah, Phys. Rev. B6, 4592 (1972).
  12. S. A. Tuccio, F. C. Strome, Appl. Opt. 11, 64 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Srinivasan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 552 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. A. Tuccio, K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 7, 248 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Bergman, R. David, J. Jortner, Opt. Commun. 4, 431 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).
  17. In collaboration with W. Richter.
  18. W. Kiefer, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1101 (1970).
  19. R. Clasen, W. Richter, private communication.
  20. J. B. Renucci, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, to be published.
  21. P. J. Dean, L. Patrick, Phys. Rev. B2, 1888 (1970).

1973 (6)

J. I. Levatter, R. L. Sandstrom, S.-C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3273 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. Cardona, Surf. Sci. 37, 100 (1973), and references therein.
[Crossref]

M. I. Bell, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, Solid State Commun. 13, 1833 (1973).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
[Crossref]

S. A. Tuccio, K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 7, 248 (1973).
[Crossref]

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).

1972 (7)

A. Bergman, R. David, J. Jortner, Opt. Commun. 4, 431 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Shah, Phys. Rev. B6, 4592 (1972).

S. A. Tuccio, F. C. Strome, Appl. Opt. 11, 64 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Opt. 11, 895 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Y. Oka, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 33, 1372 (1972).
[Crossref]

P. P. Yaney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1297 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

H. Malm, R. R. Haering, Can. J. Phys. 49, 2432 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (3)

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

W. Kiefer, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1101 (1970).

P. J. Dean, L. Patrick, Phys. Rev. B2, 1888 (1970).

1969 (1)

R. Srinivasan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 552 (1969).
[Crossref]

Bell, M. I.

M. I. Bell, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, Solid State Commun. 13, 1833 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bergman, A.

A. Bergman, R. David, J. Jortner, Opt. Commun. 4, 431 (1972).
[Crossref]

Callender, R. H.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).

Cardona, M.

M. I. Bell, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, Solid State Commun. 13, 1833 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. Cardona, Surf. Sci. 37, 100 (1973), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. B. Renucci, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, to be published.

Chang, R. K.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).

Clasen, R.

R. Clasen, W. Richter, private communication.

David, R.

A. Bergman, R. David, J. Jortner, Opt. Commun. 4, 431 (1972).
[Crossref]

Dean, P. J.

P. J. Dean, L. Patrick, Phys. Rev. B2, 1888 (1970).

Drexhage, K. H.

S. A. Tuccio, K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 7, 248 (1973).
[Crossref]

Dunning, F. B.

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Falicov, L. M.

P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
[Crossref]

Haering, R. R.

H. Malm, R. R. Haering, Can. J. Phys. 49, 2432 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

Itzkan, I.

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

Johnson, C. L.

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

Jortner, J.

A. Bergman, R. David, J. Jortner, Opt. Commun. 4, 431 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, W.

W. Kiefer, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1101 (1970).

Kierstead, E.

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

Kushida, T.

Y. Oka, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 33, 1372 (1972).
[Crossref]

Levatter, J. I.

J. I. Levatter, R. L. Sandstrom, S.-C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3273 (1973).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-C.

J. I. Levatter, R. L. Sandstrom, S.-C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3273 (1973).
[Crossref]

Malm, H.

H. Malm, R. R. Haering, Can. J. Phys. 49, 2432 (1971).
[Crossref]

Myer, J. A.

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

Oka, Y.

Y. Oka, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 33, 1372 (1972).
[Crossref]

Patrick, L.

P. J. Dean, L. Patrick, Phys. Rev. B2, 1888 (1970).

Petroff, Y.

P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
[Crossref]

Renucci, J. B.

J. B. Renucci, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, to be published.

Reynolds, G. A.

S. A. Tuccio, K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 7, 248 (1973).
[Crossref]

Richter, W.

R. Clasen, W. Richter, private communication.

Rundel, R. D.

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Sandstrom, R. L.

J. I. Levatter, R. L. Sandstrom, S.-C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3273 (1973).
[Crossref]

Selders, M.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).

Shah, J.

J. Shah, Phys. Rev. B6, 4592 (1972).

Sharma, R. D.

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, R.

R. Srinivasan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 552 (1969).
[Crossref]

Stebbings, R. F.

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Stokes, E. D.

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Strome, F. C.

Sussman, S. S.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).

Tuccio, S. A.

S. A. Tuccio, K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 7, 248 (1973).
[Crossref]

S. A. Tuccio, F. C. Strome, Appl. Opt. 11, 64 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyte, R. N.

M. I. Bell, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, Solid State Commun. 13, 1833 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. B. Renucci, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, to be published.

Walters, G. K.

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Yaney, P. P.

Yu, P. Y.

P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Myer, C. L. Johnson, E. Kierstead, R. D. Sharma, I. Itzkan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 3 (1970).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

H. Malm, R. R. Haering, Can. J. Phys. 49, 2432 (1971).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Srinivasan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 552 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. I. Levatter, R. L. Sandstrom, S.-C. Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3273 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Soc. Jap. (1)

Y. Oka, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 33, 1372 (1972).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

E. D. Stokes, F. B. Dunning, R. F. Stebbings, G. K. Walters, R. D. Rundel, Opt. Commun. 5, 267 (1972).
[Crossref]

S. A. Tuccio, K. H. Drexhage, G. A. Reynolds, Opt. Commun. 7, 248 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. Bergman, R. David, J. Jortner, Opt. Commun. 4, 431 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (3)

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B7, 3788 (1973).

J. Shah, Phys. Rev. B6, 4592 (1972).

P. J. Dean, L. Patrick, Phys. Rev. B2, 1888 (1970).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Y. Yu, Y. R. Shen, Y. Petroff, L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 283 (1973).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

M. I. Bell, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, Solid State Commun. 13, 1833 (1973).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Cardona, Surf. Sci. 37, 100 (1973), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

W. Kiefer, Z. Naturforsch. 25a, 1101 (1970).

Other (3)

R. Clasen, W. Richter, private communication.

J. B. Renucci, R. N. Tyte, M. Cardona, to be published.

In collaboration with W. Richter.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The Raman spectrum of AsI3 at 77 K, using sodium fluoroscein lasing at 555.0 nm as the excitation source. Scanning speed, 0.125 nm/min; time constant, 10 sec; effective slit width, 0.09 nm. The spectrum is not corrected for multiphoton counting effects described by Eq. (3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The pair luminescence spectrum of GaP (S, C) at 8 K, using 7-hydroxycoumarin lasing at 536.55 nm as the excitation source. Scanning speed, 0.25 nm/min; time constant, 10 sec; effective slit width, 0.04 nm. The spectrum is not corrected for multiphoton counting effects described by Eq. (3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental confirmation of correction formula Eq. (3). Corrected and uncorrected signals in a Raman peak of AsI3 are plotted against incident laser power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Dyes, Solvents, Concentrations, and Tuning Ranges Obtained

Equations (6)

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R obs = 1 - ( 1 - R / N ) N .
ln ( 1 - R / N ) N = - R .
R = - ln ( 1 - R obs ) .
Δ R R = - Δ R obs ( 1 - R obs ) ln ( 1 - R obs ) ,
Δ R R = - ( f τ ) - 1 / 2 R obs 1 / 2 ( 1 - R obs ) ln ( 1 - R obs ) .
2 X + ( X + 1 ) ln ( 1 - X ) = 0 ,

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