Abstract

A device for detailed measurement of diffraction grating efficiencies and over-all performance in the VUV has been designed and constructed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The system employs semiautomated mechanisms to scan the face of the grating with a narrow monochromatic beam, and an efficiency map of the grating surface is produced on a strip chart recorder. Grating efficiency in the various diffracted orders and intensity of light scattered between orders may also be measured. A unique feature is the ability to determine the angle and effectiveness of grating blaze and variations in blaze under different conditions of illumination.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 5 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Namioka, M. Seya, Sci. Light 15, 1 (1966).
  3. A. L. Morse, G. L. Weissler, Sci. Light 15, 22 (1966).
  4. D. C. Hammer, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Appl. Opt. 3, 79 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. M. Burton, A. T. Hatter, A. Ridgeley, in Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions of the Spectrum, ESRO SP-33 (December1968), p. 145.
  6. W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 219.
  7. M. C. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 231.
  8. W. R. Hunter, Appl. Opt. 6, 2140 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. G. Wilkinson, D. W. Angel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1120 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. R. Samson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 525 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

1969

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 5 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

1966

T. Namioka, M. Seya, Sci. Light 15, 1 (1966).

A. L. Morse, G. L. Weissler, Sci. Light 15, 22 (1966).

1964

1962

Angel, D. W.

Arakawa, E. T.

Birkhoff, R. D.

Burton, W. M.

W. M. Burton, A. T. Hatter, A. Ridgeley, in Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions of the Spectrum, ESRO SP-33 (December1968), p. 145.

Flamand, J.

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 5 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. C.

Hatter, A. T.

W. M. Burton, A. T. Hatter, A. Ridgeley, in Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions of the Spectrum, ESRO SP-33 (December1968), p. 145.

Huber, M. C.

M. C. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 231.

Hunter, W. R.

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 5 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Morse, A. L.

A. L. Morse, G. L. Weissler, Sci. Light 15, 22 (1966).

Namioka, T.

T. Namioka, M. Seya, Sci. Light 15, 1 (1966).

Parkinson, W. H.

W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 219.

M. C. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 231.

Reeves, E. M.

M. C. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 231.

W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 219.

Ridgeley, A.

W. M. Burton, A. T. Hatter, A. Ridgeley, in Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions of the Spectrum, ESRO SP-33 (December1968), p. 145.

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 525 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Seya, M.

T. Namioka, M. Seya, Sci. Light 15, 1 (1966).

Weissler, G. L.

A. L. Morse, G. L. Weissler, Sci. Light 15, 22 (1966).

Wilkinson, P. G.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

A. Labeyrie, J. Flamand, Opt. Commun. 1, 5 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Light

T. Namioka, M. Seya, Sci. Light 15, 1 (1966).

A. L. Morse, G. L. Weissler, Sci. Light 15, 22 (1966).

Other

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

W. M. Burton, A. T. Hatter, A. Ridgeley, in Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions of the Spectrum, ESRO SP-33 (December1968), p. 145.

W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 219.

M. C. Huber, W. H. Parkinson, E. M. Reeves, in Ref. 5, p. 231.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Motions required for testing gratings. The vertical rotation axis is tangent to the grating face at the point of contact with the optic axis. Circumferential translation is a motion of the grating along the surface of the sphere of which it is a segment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic plan view of the OGE system. The two photomultiplier tubes are used for two different operating modes; PM is used for in-focus, Rowland circle measurements, and PM′ for measurements utilizing the reflectometer geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The OGE system in operating position. Components visible in this view are (1) 1-m vacuum monochromator; (2) monochromator exit slit housing; (3) photomultiplier for use in in-focus measurements (PM); (4) variable length tubing; (5) grating enclosure; (6) control handle for auxiliary photomultiplier (PM′) used in reflectometer geometry; (7) pumping station; (8) mechanical assembly for control of test grating (motor is shown positioned for circumferential translation drive); (9) hydraulic support table.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The dashed line indicates approximate position of the monochromator exit slit image. (b) When the grating is rotated so as to operate at large angle of incidence, departures from the approximate Rowland focal conditions may be severe enough to introduce photometric errors. A different length of tubing must then be inserted to establish PM at the chordal distance d rather than at R.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A schematic view of the coaxial vacuum feed-through for the mechanical motions that control the grating. Each of the motions is driven by a worm in order to avoid frictional coupling. W1 controls the eccentric pin for grating tilt adjustment; W2 is the circumferential translation drive; W3 adjusts angle of incidence. The curved rack at the top is attached by screws to the underside of the grating carriage. In this schematic diagram, the location of some of the components has been rearranged to show more clearly their functional relationships. The actual mechanism is shown in the photographic views (b) and (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The grating carriage and track along which it rolls. (b) The carriage and track mounted in the vacuum chamber. The carriage has been driven to the extreme end of its travel to show the pinion for circumferential translation and the eccentrically mounted pin for control of grating tilt. This view looks from the rear of the instrument, through the grating enclosure and into the tubing leading toward the PM and monochromator exit slit. The slit and PM are not visible, but are behind the dark hole in the upper left.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Above) Underside of the grating carriage, showing (1) supporting wheels; (2) guide wheels; (3) rack for driving circumferential translation; and (4) slot for control of grating tilt. (Below) The cell that holds the grating has been rotated forward to show the slot more clearly. The interchangeable drive rack (3) is positioned by dowel pins for accurate registration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The upper portion shows the dimensions of a tripartite blazed diffraction grating and of the light patch used to scan its surface. Results for a measurement of first order efficiency at 736 Å are shown in the lower portion. Efficiency reaches a maximum near the center of each of the three ruling panels and falls rapidly toward the edges.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scan through spectral orders for the same grating shown in Fig. 8. Only one portion of the grating, near its center, is illuminated. Efficiency in the first order is 1.2% at this point for 736-Å radiation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The same scan as in Fig. 9, repeated with higher sensitivity and control of the detector aperture (see text). The vertical scale is calibrated for the stray light and does not apply to the peaks corresponding to spectral orders.

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