Abstract

This paper describes a single transverse mode Q-switched Nd3+ glass laser working on a few longitudinal adjacent modes. The narrowing of the spectral output is obtained by use of a resonant reflector and a birefringent filter under temperature control. The number of longitudinal modes is varied from one to ten with a constant energy output of 10 mJ by means of intracavity resonators and two-step Q-switching. Observations of the quasiperiodic intensity fluctuations during the 40-nsec pulse give information about the statistical character of multimode giant pulse laser emission.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. S. Voronov, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 1, 66 (1965).
  2. G. A. Delone, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 10, 265 (1969).
  3. S. L. Chin, N. R. Isenor, M. Young, Phys. Rev. 188, 7 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Fox, R. M. Morgan, E. J. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett 26, 1416 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Held, G. Mainfray, J. Morellec, Phys. Lett. 39A, 57 (1972).
  8. M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).
  9. H. B. Bebb, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 143, 1 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. M. Morton, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 92, 301 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Gontier, M. Trahin, Phys. Rev. A4, 1896 (1971).
  12. B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Laser Head Qtiantel HH 312, commercially available.
  14. A. G. Fox, T. Li, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).
  15. G. L. McAllister, M. M. Mann, L. G. de Shazer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 44 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. R. Sooy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Daneu, C. A. Sacchi, O. Svelto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 290 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. McMahon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 489 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 117 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  20. For rigorous calculations, see H. F. Mahlein, G. Schollmeier, Appl. Opt. 8, 1197 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965), p. 51.
  22. B. Soep, Opt. Commun. 1, 433 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. C. Hanna, Opto-Electron. 3, 163 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Hercher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 39 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. A. Fleck, Phys. Rev. B1, 84 (1970).

1973 (2)

M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

B. Held, G. Mainfray, J. Morellec, Phys. Lett. 39A, 57 (1972).

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (4)

D. C. Hanna, Opto-Electron. 3, 163 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gontier, M. Trahin, Phys. Rev. A4, 1896 (1971).

R. A. Fox, R. M. Morgan, E. J. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett 26, 1416 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (4)

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. L. McAllister, M. M. Mann, L. G. de Shazer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 44 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. Soep, Opt. Commun. 1, 433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fleck, Phys. Rev. B1, 84 (1970).

1969 (4)

For rigorous calculations, see H. F. Mahlein, G. Schollmeier, Appl. Opt. 8, 1197 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. McMahon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 489 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Delone, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 10, 265 (1969).

S. L. Chin, N. R. Isenor, M. Young, Phys. Rev. 188, 7 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

V. M. Morton, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 92, 301 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

V. Daneu, C. A. Sacchi, O. Svelto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 290 (1966).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Bebb, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 143, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (3)

G. S. Voronov, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 1, 66 (1965).

W. R. Sooy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Hercher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 39 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

A. G. Fox, T. Li, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ammann, E. O.

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Baravian, G.

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Barjot, G.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bebb, H. B.

H. B. Bebb, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 143, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Benattar, R.

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965), p. 51.

Bretagne, J.

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Callede, G.

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, N. R. Isenor, M. Young, Phys. Rev. 188, 7 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Daneu, V.

V. Daneu, C. A. Sacchi, O. Svelto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 290 (1966).
[CrossRef]

de Shazer, L. G.

G. L. McAllister, M. M. Mann, L. G. de Shazer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 44 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Delone, G. A.

G. A. Delone, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 10, 265 (1969).

Delone, N. B.

G. A. Delone, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 10, 265 (1969).

G. S. Voronov, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 1, 66 (1965).

Fleck, J. A.

J. A. Fleck, Phys. Rev. B1, 84 (1970).

Fox, A. G.

A. G. Fox, T. Li, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Fox, R. A.

R. A. Fox, R. M. Morgan, E. J. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett 26, 1416 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Godart, J. L.

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gold, A.

H. B. Bebb, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 143, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gontier, Y.

Y. Gontier, M. Trahin, Phys. Rev. A4, 1896 (1971).

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, Opto-Electron. 3, 163 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Held, B.

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. Held, G. Mainfray, J. Morellec, Phys. Lett. 39A, 57 (1972).

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 39 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Isenor, N. R.

S. L. Chin, N. R. Isenor, M. Young, Phys. Rev. 188, 7 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

A. G. Fox, T. Li, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Lu Van, M.

M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).

Mahlein, H. F.

Mainfray, G.

M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. Held, G. Mainfray, J. Morellec, Phys. Lett. 39A, 57 (1972).

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mann, M. M.

G. L. McAllister, M. M. Mann, L. G. de Shazer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 44 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

McAllister, G. L.

G. L. McAllister, M. M. Mann, L. G. de Shazer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 44 (1970).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, J. M.

J. M. McMahon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 489 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Morellec, J.

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. Held, G. Mainfray, J. Morellec, Phys. Lett. 39A, 57 (1972).

Morgan, R. M.

R. A. Fox, R. M. Morgan, E. J. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett 26, 1416 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Morton, V. M.

V. M. Morton, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 92, 301 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, E. J.

R. A. Fox, R. M. Morgan, E. J. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett 26, 1416 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sacchi, C. A.

V. Daneu, C. A. Sacchi, O. Svelto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 290 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schollmeier, G.

Soep, B.

B. Soep, Opt. Commun. 1, 433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

W. R. Sooy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sultan, G.

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

V. Daneu, C. A. Sacchi, O. Svelto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 290 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Thebault, J.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Trahin, M.

Y. Gontier, M. Trahin, Phys. Rev. A4, 1896 (1971).

Tugov, I.

M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).

Voronov, G. S.

G. S. Voronov, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 1, 66 (1965).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965), p. 51.

Yarborough, J. M.

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

S. L. Chin, N. R. Isenor, M. Young, Phys. Rev. 188, 7 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Hercher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 39 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. Baravian, R. Benattar, J. Bretagne, G. Callede, J. L. Godart, G. Sultan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 387 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Sooy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 36 (1965).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

A. G. Fox, T. Li, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

G. L. McAllister, M. M. Mann, L. G. de Shazer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 44 (1970).
[CrossRef]

V. Daneu, C. A. Sacchi, O. Svelto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 290 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McMahon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 489 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Thebault, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 782 (1970).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (2)

G. S. Voronov, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 1, 66 (1965).

G. A. Delone, N. B. Delone, JETP Lett. 10, 265 (1969).

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Soep, Opt. Commun. 1, 433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opto-Electron. (1)

D. C. Hanna, Opto-Electron. 3, 163 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Held, G. Mainfray, J. Morellec, Phys. Lett. 39A, 57 (1972).

Phys. Rev. (5)

M. Lu Van, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, I. Tugov, Phys. Rev. A7, 91 (1973).

H. B. Bebb, A. Gold, Phys. Rev. 143, 1 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, N. R. Isenor, M. Young, Phys. Rev. 188, 7 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gontier, M. Trahin, Phys. Rev. A4, 1896 (1971).

J. A. Fleck, Phys. Rev. B1, 84 (1970).

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

R. A. Fox, R. M. Morgan, E. J. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett 26, 1416 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Held, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Morellec, F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. (1)

V. M. Morton, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 92, 301 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Laser Head Qtiantel HH 312, commercially available.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965), p. 51.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the oscillator. M, back spherical mirror; C, Pockels cell; D, circular aperture; P and P′, polarizing sets; A, active media; Q quartz parallel plate; E, ensemble composed of four boundaries: α, β, β′, γ; R, resonant reflector; T, temperature-controlled enclosure; W and W′, Brewster windows. The significant lengths are MR = 75 cm, MD = 20 cm, QR = 30 cm, γR = 7 cm. The optical cavity length is L = 85 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of the free-running laser emission, without quartz plate, for two different temperatures: (a) T = 27° C, (b) T = 32 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Narrowed spectral output. (a) Densitometer scan of the spectrum recorded with a SOPRA spectrograph, 1200 grooves/mm grating, focal length 4 m, aperture 1/36. (b) Photograph of the spectrum recorded with a 7.5 cm thick Fabry-Perot interferometer. The focal length is 3 m, and the diameter of the image converter S1 photocathode is 30 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum and corresponding pulse: (a) single mode emission, (b) two nonadjacent modes emission.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum and corresponding pulse in bimode emission: (a) intensity ratio equal to 5.10−3 at the pulse top, (b) intensity ratio equal to 0.2 at the pulse top.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum and corresponding pulse in multimode emission: (a) three modes, (b) five modes, (c) seven modes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Variation of Mode Number

Equations (10)

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R 1 1 - R 1 = ( n 2 - 1 2 n ) 2 sin 2 2 π σ n b ,
R / ( 1 - R ) ~ [ ( 4 R 1 ) / ( 1 - R 1 ) 2 ] sin 2 2 π σ B δ [ ( n 2 - 1 ) / n ] 2 · sin 2 2 π σ n b · sin 2 2 π σ B ,
δ = 1 + [ ( n 2 - 1 ) / 2 n ] 2 sin 2 2 π σ n b ,
R M = [ ( n 4 - 1 ) ( n 4 + 1 ) ] 2
R / ( 1 - R ) [ ( n 2 - 1 ) / ( 2 n ) ] 2 [ cos 2 π σ ( B - n b ) - cos 2 π σ ( B + n b ) ] 2 .
Δ σ 1 1 / ( B + n b ) ; Δ σ 2 1 / ( 2 B - n b ) .
Δ T B - n b / { 4 σ B n b [ ( 1 / n ) ( n ) / ( T ) ] } . 1 n n T = 1 , 3 × 10 - 6 ° C - 1
T 1 - [ ( m 2 - 1 ) ( 2 m ) ] 2 · sin 2 [ 2 π σ m d cos ( θ / m ) ] ,
N N 0 [ p / q 0 ] 1 / 2 , ( p q 0 )
I ( t ) = I 0 + I 1 + 2 ( I 0 I 1 ) 1 / 2 cos 2 π [ t / ( Δ t ) ] ,

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