Abstract

Single point diamond knives have been used to machine to microinch tolerances. This micromachining can also produce optics of high quality. Optical micromachining capabilities in terms of materials, shapes, and optical figure are discussed. Comparisons are made between micromachined mirrors and superpolished surfaces including reflectivity, absorption, scatter, roughness, autocorrelation length, and Nomarski microscopy. 10.6-μm pulsed damage data and preliminary 10.6-μm cw damage investigations are also reported. Micromachined metals are superior to conventionally polished samples and compete well with superpolished samples.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, Appl. Opt. 4, 221 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Bloembergen, Appl. Opt. 12, 661 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. M. Warmbord, “Microinch Machining,” presented at Precision Machining and Gaging Conference, Nov. 1972, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
  5. J. B. Bryan, R. Clouser, E. Holland, Am. Machinist 612, 149 (1973).
  6. J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.
  7. J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1394 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Soileau, Michelson Laboratories; private communication (1973).
  9. J. F. Williford, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, R. E. Amen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 488 (73); L. L. Nichols, C. A. Ratcliffe, R. L. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 508 (1973); R. W. Stewart, “Investigate Materials Systems for Mirrors Used in High Power CO & CO2 Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ARPA Order No. 2175, Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland Wash. (Dec.1972).
  10. T. T. Saito, A. B. Callender, L. B. Simmons, presented to 1974 Spring Meeting of Optical Society of America.
  11. T. T. Saito, “10.6 μm Absorption in Moybdenum Mirrors,” to be presented to ASME/AIAA Thermophysics and Heat Transfer ConferenceJuly1974.
  12. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1967), Vol. 4; S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Dover, New York, 1970).
  13. M. G. Wetzel, T. T. Saito, S. R. Patterson, Appl. Opt. 12, 1558 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Appl. Opt. 12, 637 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. J. Soileau, V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 13, 1286 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).
  17. J. S. Loomis, T. T. Saito in Third Conference on High Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, November 12–14, 1973, AFCRL-TR-74-0085 (III), C. A. Pitha, H. Posen, A. Armington, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1973), p. 1027.

1974 (1)

1973 (4)

1968 (1)

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

Allen, E. V.

J. F. Williford, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, R. E. Amen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 488 (73); L. L. Nichols, C. A. Ratcliffe, R. L. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 508 (1973); R. W. Stewart, “Investigate Materials Systems for Mirrors Used in High Power CO & CO2 Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ARPA Order No. 2175, Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland Wash. (Dec.1972).

Amen, R. E.

J. F. Williford, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, R. E. Amen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 488 (73); L. L. Nichols, C. A. Ratcliffe, R. L. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 508 (1973); R. W. Stewart, “Investigate Materials Systems for Mirrors Used in High Power CO & CO2 Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ARPA Order No. 2175, Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland Wash. (Dec.1972).

Ashley, E. J.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, Appl. Opt. 4, 221 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1967), Vol. 4; S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Dover, New York, 1970).

Bennett, J. M.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, Appl. Opt. 4, 221 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1967), Vol. 4; S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Dover, New York, 1970).

Bloembergen, N.

Braunstein, A.

V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Braunstein, M.

V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Bryan, J. B.

J. B. Bryan, R. Clouser, E. Holland, Am. Machinist 612, 149 (1973).

J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.

Callender, A. B.

T. T. Saito, A. B. Callender, L. B. Simmons, presented to 1974 Spring Meeting of Optical Society of America.

Clouser, R.

J. B. Bryan, R. Clouser, E. Holland, Am. Machinist 612, 149 (1973).

Clouser, R. W.

J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.

Donaldson, R. R.

J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.

Glass, A. J.

Gordon, R. L.

J. F. Williford, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, R. E. Amen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 488 (73); L. L. Nichols, C. A. Ratcliffe, R. L. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 508 (1973); R. W. Stewart, “Investigate Materials Systems for Mirrors Used in High Power CO & CO2 Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ARPA Order No. 2175, Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland Wash. (Dec.1972).

Guenther, A. H.

Holland, E.

J. B. Bryan, R. Clouser, E. Holland, Am. Machinist 612, 149 (1973).

Loomis, J. S.

J. S. Loomis, T. T. Saito in Third Conference on High Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, November 12–14, 1973, AFCRL-TR-74-0085 (III), C. A. Pitha, H. Posen, A. Armington, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1973), p. 1027.

McClure, E. R.

J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.

Motyka, R. J.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, S. R.

Porteus, J. O.

Rudisill, J. E.

V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Saito, T. T.

M. G. Wetzel, T. T. Saito, S. R. Patterson, Appl. Opt. 12, 1558 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Saito, “10.6 μm Absorption in Moybdenum Mirrors,” to be presented to ASME/AIAA Thermophysics and Heat Transfer ConferenceJuly1974.

J. S. Loomis, T. T. Saito in Third Conference on High Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, November 12–14, 1973, AFCRL-TR-74-0085 (III), C. A. Pitha, H. Posen, A. Armington, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1973), p. 1027.

T. T. Saito, A. B. Callender, L. B. Simmons, presented to 1974 Spring Meeting of Optical Society of America.

Simmons, L. B.

T. T. Saito, A. B. Callender, L. B. Simmons, presented to 1974 Spring Meeting of Optical Society of America.

Soileau, M. J.

M. J. Soileau, V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 13, 1286 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Soileau, Michelson Laboratories; private communication (1973).

Wada, J. Y.

V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Wang, V.

M. J. Soileau, V. Wang, Appl. Opt. 13, 1286 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Warmbord, W. M.

W. M. Warmbord, “Microinch Machining,” presented at Precision Machining and Gaging Conference, Nov. 1972, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Wetzel, M. G.

Whelan, H. A.

J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.

Williford, J. F.

J. F. Williford, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, R. E. Amen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 488 (73); L. L. Nichols, C. A. Ratcliffe, R. L. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 508 (1973); R. W. Stewart, “Investigate Materials Systems for Mirrors Used in High Power CO & CO2 Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ARPA Order No. 2175, Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland Wash. (Dec.1972).

Am. Machinist (1)

J. B. Bryan, R. Clouser, E. Holland, Am. Machinist 612, 149 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. F. Williford, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, R. E. Amen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 488 (73); L. L. Nichols, C. A. Ratcliffe, R. L. Gordon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 508 (1973); R. W. Stewart, “Investigate Materials Systems for Mirrors Used in High Power CO & CO2 Lasers,” Tech. Rep. ARPA Order No. 2175, Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland Wash. (Dec.1972).

J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1394 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, R. J. Motyka, Phys. Rev. 165, 755 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

W. M. Warmbord, “Microinch Machining,” presented at Precision Machining and Gaging Conference, Nov. 1972, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

M. J. Soileau, Michelson Laboratories; private communication (1973).

J. B. Bryan, R. R. Donaldson, E. R. McClure, H. A. Whelan, R. W. Clouser “Diamond Turning of Parabolic Mirrors,” presented at Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers, Aug. 1973, UCRL-51213.

T. T. Saito, A. B. Callender, L. B. Simmons, presented to 1974 Spring Meeting of Optical Society of America.

T. T. Saito, “10.6 μm Absorption in Moybdenum Mirrors,” to be presented to ASME/AIAA Thermophysics and Heat Transfer ConferenceJuly1974.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1967), Vol. 4; S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Dover, New York, 1970).

V. Wang, A. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, J. Y. Wada, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1973, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther Ed., National Bureau of Standards Special Publ. 387 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

J. S. Loomis, T. T. Saito in Third Conference on High Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, November 12–14, 1973, AFCRL-TR-74-0085 (III), C. A. Pitha, H. Posen, A. Armington, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, 1973), p. 1027.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nomarski photographs of typical areas of superfinished surfaces. All machined samples are photographed in same place with machine marks parallel and perpendicular to optical shear of Nomarski (a) Y-12 (first electroplated then machined) Cu; (b) LLL gold (first electroplated on brass then machined); (c) Y-12 BeCu; (d) Perkin-Elmer superpolished 21 Å rms rough UHV silver coated copper. Mag 100×, i.e., each photograph is 0.88 mm × 0.47 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nomarski photographs of cw 10.6-μm damage. (a) 102×, polished copper 22 Å rms rough, illuminated 5 sec at 40 kW/cm2; (b) 102× Y-12 diamond machined copper illuminated 5 sec at 40 kW/cm2; (c) 64× conventionally polished copper, silver coated, enhanced with two pair ThF4/CdTe, illuminated 5 sec at 30 kW/cm2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I State-of-the-Art Polished Metal Mirrors Without Coatings

Tables Icon

Table II Properties of Micromachined Metals

Metrics