Abstract

The use of optical waveguides in communications systems may require the interconnection of many interactive terminals. The preferred configuration for passive interconnection in optical waveguide systems is shown to be a configuration termed the Star system. The central interconnecting component, the Star coupler, is described, and the performance of a system incorporating it is compared to that of an equivalent system using a common optical bus and Tee couplers. The Star system is shown to have lower terminal-to-terminal loss, easier upgradability, enhanced reliability and survivability, inherent bidirectionality, and inherent equivalence of all terminals. Construction of two Star couplers is described, and measurements of their performance characteristics are reported.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. L. Thiel, patent applied for.
  2. R. E. Love, patent applied for.
  3. F. L. Thiel, patent applied for.
  4. Electron. 46 (26), 30 (20December1973).
  5. F. L. Thiel, R. E. Love, R. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 13, 240 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Electron. 46 (26), 30 (20December1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. (1)

Electron. 46 (26), 30 (20December1973).

Other (3)

F. L. Thiel, patent applied for.

R. E. Love, patent applied for.

F. L. Thiel, patent applied for.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) An optical waveguide system using a common bus and optical Tee couplers. (b) An optical waveguide system using a Star coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic cross section of a Star coupler mixer rod, showing the paths of two rays from a single input fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A plot of worst-case loss as a function of the number of terminals in a Tee system and in a Star system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic cross section of a Star coupler, showing construction details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Losses due to packing fraction (curve A) and epoxy immersion (curve B), as a function of the cladding thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A seven-port Star coupler.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Terminal-to-Terminal Loss (dB) for the Sixty-one Fiber-Bundle Star Coupler

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Table II Terminal-to-Terminal Loss (dB) for the Nineteen-Fiber-Bundle Star Coupler

Equations (6)

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L TEE L I O = L C + L M + L C + ( N 3 ) ( L C + L M + L I T + L M + L C ) + L C + L M + L D + L M + L C + L F .
L STAR L I O = 2 L C + L I S + L S + 2 L C + L F .
L TEE L I O = 3.62 + 6.46 N
L STAR L I O = 15 + 10 log 10 N .
M i j = 10 log 10 ( S j / R i ) .
Q i j = M i j A j ,

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