Abstract

The radiative transfer equation has been solved by a Monte Carlo technique for a flat homogeneous ocean with two different incident radiance distributions. The irradiance reflectivity R for photons that penetrate the ocean is presented as a function of the single scattering albedo ω0, and the scattering phase function P(θ) of the medium. The P(θ)’s used are based on experimental observations. The results clearly show that R depends strongly on both ω0 and P(θ) but apparently not on the form of the incident radiance distribution. Arguments are presented to show that in clearest ocean water the upwelling field above the surface can provide information only about the upper 25 m of the medium.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. L. Clark, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. G. White, in Second Annual Earth Resources Aircraft Program Status Review 16–18 September 1969 (NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Sept.30), Vol. 3, pp. 1–9.
  3. R. C. Ramsey, “Study of the Remote Measurement of Ocean Color,” Final Report, TRW, NASW-1658 (1968).
  4. G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).
  5. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 52, 245 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Ocean. 2, 139 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Preisendorfer, Monogrs. U.G.G.I. 10, 11 (1961).
  8. G. F. Beardsley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 373 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1972

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Ocean. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 52, 245 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. L. Clark, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

1968

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

1961

R. W. Preisendorfer, Monogrs. U.G.G.I. 10, 11 (1961).

Beardsley, G. F.

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 52, 245 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G. L.

G. L. Clark, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ewing, G. C.

G. L. Clark, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 52, 245 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Ocean. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

Lorenzen, C. J.

G. L. Clark, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Ocean. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Monogrs. U.G.G.I. 10, 11 (1961).

Ramsey, R. C.

R. C. Ramsey, “Study of the Remote Measurement of Ocean Color,” Final Report, TRW, NASW-1658 (1968).

White, P. G.

P. G. White, in Second Annual Earth Resources Aircraft Program Status Review 16–18 September 1969 (NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Sept.30), Vol. 3, pp. 1–9.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Deep Sea Res.

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Ocean.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Phys. Ocean. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Monogrs. U.G.G.I.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Monogrs. U.G.G.I. 10, 11 (1961).

Science

G. L. Clark, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 52, 245 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. G. White, in Second Annual Earth Resources Aircraft Program Status Review 16–18 September 1969 (NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Sept.30), Vol. 3, pp. 1–9.

R. C. Ramsey, “Study of the Remote Measurement of Ocean Color,” Final Report, TRW, NASW-1658 (1968).

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Tables (3)

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Table I Three Scattering Phase Functions

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Table II R(0,−) Just above Sea Surface for Three Phase Functions

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Table III Average Path of Escaping Photons for Three Phase Functions

Equations (2)

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{ 1 / [ h ( τ , + ) + h ( τ , - ) ] } ( d / d τ ) [ H ( τ , + ) - H ( τ , - ) ] ,
B = 2 π / b π / 2 π β ( θ ) sin θ d θ

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