Abstract

The polarization properties of the backscattering of a lidar pulse from atmospheric clouds have been measured. A linearly polarized signal from a ruby laser at 694.3 nm is transmitted, and the scattering is simultaneously measured on a three-channel receiver that has polarizers oriented parallel, perpendicular, and at 45° to the transmitted polarization. Substantial depolarizations (up to 0.5) are observed, and from the spatial variation of this depolarization the contribution of multiple scattering can be deduced. A wide variation in polarization properties is observed in different cloud types, and the results indicate that polarization signatures could be useful for cloud characterization and classification.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. T. H. Collis, Appl. Opt. 9, 1782 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 32, 917 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. E. Derr, C. G. Little, Appl. Opt. 9, 1976 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. I. Carswell, A. K. McQuillan, W. R. McNeil, Can. Aero. Space J. 17, 419 (1971).
  5. A. Cohen, J. Neumann, W. Low, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 952 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).
  8. K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. W. Eloranta, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin (1972).
  10. V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).
  11. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 11, 2851 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 11, 2851 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (3)

A. I. Carswell, A. K. McQuillan, W. R. McNeil, Can. Aero. Space J. 17, 419 (1971).

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[Crossref]

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

1970 (5)

G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 32, 917 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. T. H. Collis, Appl. Opt. 9, 1782 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Derr, C. G. Little, Appl. Opt. 9, 1976 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cohen, J. Neumann, W. Low, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 952 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1970).
[Crossref]

Carswell, A. I.

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

A. I. Carswell, A. K. McQuillan, W. R. McNeil, Can. Aero. Space J. 17, 419 (1971).

Cohen, A.

A. Cohen, J. Neumann, W. Low, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 952 (1970).
[Crossref]

Collis, R. T. H.

Derr, V. E.

Dugin, V. P.

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin (1972).

Golubitskiy, B. M.

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

Houston, J. D.

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 32, 917 (1970).
[Crossref]

Liou, K.

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[Crossref]

Little, C. G.

Low, W.

A. Cohen, J. Neumann, W. Low, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 952 (1970).
[Crossref]

McNeil, W. R.

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

A. I. Carswell, A. K. McQuillan, W. R. McNeil, Can. Aero. Space J. 17, 419 (1971).

McQuillan, A. K.

A. I. Carswell, A. K. McQuillan, W. R. McNeil, Can. Aero. Space J. 17, 419 (1971).

Mirumyants, S. O.

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

Neumann, J.

A. Cohen, J. Neumann, W. Low, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 952 (1970).
[Crossref]

Pal, S. R.

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

Paramonov, P. I.

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

Plass, G. N.

Sassen, K.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1970).
[Crossref]

Schotland, R. M.

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1970).
[Crossref]

Sizgoric, S.

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

Stone, R.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1970).
[Crossref]

Tantashev, M. V.

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

Wright, R. W. H.

G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 32, 917 (1970).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

V. P. Dugin, B. M. Golubitskiy, S. O. Mirumyants, P. I. Paramonov, M. V. Tantashev, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 581 (1971).

Can. Aero. Space J. (2)

A. I. Carswell, J. D. Houston, W. R. McNeil, S. R. Pal, S. Sizgoric, Can. Aero. Space J. 18, 335 (1972).

A. I. Carswell, A. K. McQuillan, W. R. McNeil, Can. Aero. Space J. 17, 419 (1971).

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

A. Cohen, J. Neumann, W. Low, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 952 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. (1)

G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 32, 917 (1970).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. W. Eloranta, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin (1972).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical calibration signatures of backscatter intensity (arbitrary units) from an atmospheric cloud. Both the receiver channels were polarized parallel to the plane of polarization of the transmitted pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sequence of measurements from a cloud layer at (a) 0956 h, (b) 1001 h, (c) 1003 h, and (d) 1005 h on 22 Sept. 1972. Each photo is a simultaneous record of backscatter intensity in the planes parallel (left) and perpendicular (right) to the plane of polarization of the transmitted pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depolarization ratio δ as a function of penetration depth for the clouds shown in Fig. 2. The depolarization due to multiple scattering calculated by Liou and Schotland8 and Eloranta9 are given by the solid curves (1) and (2), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sequence of measurements on a structured cloud layer. Firing times are (a) 1007 h, (b) 1018 h, (c) 1009 h, and (d) 1025 h on 19 Sept. 1972.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Depolarization ratio as a function of penetration depth for the clouds of Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Backscatter intensity measurements for high level clouds at (a) 1401 h, (b) 1404 h, and (c) 1407 h on 27 Sept. 1972. The parallel and perpendicular signals show marked differences as compared to the low level clouds of Figs. 2 and 4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Depolarization ratio δ as a function of penetration depth for the clouds of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The angle of rotation χ as a function of penetration depth for the clouds of Fig. 2.

Equations (3)

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δ = P / P ,
P = P T ( A / R 2 ) ( c t / 2 ) β exp ( - 2 τ ) , P = P T ( A 1 / R 2 ) ( c t / 2 ) β exp ( - τ - τ ) ,
I = P + P , Q = P - P , U = 2 P 45 - I ,

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