Abstract

The stratospheric water vapor mixing ratio altitude profile has been derived from spectral observations of the downward night emission from the pure rotation water vapor lines in the 24–29-μm region of the spectrum. The data were obtained during two balloon flights, made on 22 February 1971 and on 29 June 1971, using a balloon-borne spectral radiometer with ~2 cm−1 resolution. The observed radiances have been fitted to line-by-line, layer-by-layer radiance calculations, from which the water vapor mixing ratio between 10 km and 30 km has been derived. The resulting mixing ratio altitude profiles from both flights show a broad minimum around 15 km and a broad maximum around 25 km with a range of values of 6 × 10−7g/g to 4 × 10−6 g/g.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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A. W. Brewer, K. P. B. Thomson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1062 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Mastenbrook, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1495 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

W. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 9, 1193 (1970).

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5831 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. R. Pick, J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 95, 535 (1969).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Conrath, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, T. G. Kyle, W. J. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 5369 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Kyle, J. Quart, Spectrosc. Rad. Tran. 9, 1477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, T. G. Kyle, A. Goldman, Appl. Opt. 8, 2519 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

W. L. Smith, Month. Weather Rev. 96, 387 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Mastenbrook, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 299 (1968).
[CrossRef]

N. Sissenwine, D. D. Grantham, H. A. Salmela, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1129 (1968).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Kyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 192 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

E. Raschke, W. R. Bandeen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 468 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Kuhn, J. D. McFadden, Month. Weather Rev. 95, 565 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Kuhn, S. K. Cox, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

K. Ya Kondratiev, G. A. Nicolsky, I. Ya Badinov, S. D. Andreev, Appl. Opt. 6, 197 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Neporent, M. S. Kiseleva, A. G. Makogonenko, V. I. Schlyakhov, Appl. Opt. 6, 1845 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

R. Zander, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 3775 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 159 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Calfee, D. M. Gates, Appl. Opt. 5, 287 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1239 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 4, 161 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 104 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, Optics Spectrosc. 19, 513 (1965).

E. J. Wil 20. E. J. Williamson, J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 91, 330 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

1963

D. E. Burch, W. L. France, D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 2, 585 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 332 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

1961

1960

J. T. Houghton, J. S. Seeley, Quart. J. Roy. Meterol. Soc. 86, 358 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, J. N. Brooks, F. ll. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 107 (1960).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1232 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, F. E. Leslie, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 3641 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, V. A. Fursenkov, Optics Spectrosc. 6, 522 (1959).

Andreev, S. D.

Babrov, H. J.

Bandeen, W. R.

E. Raschke, W. R. Bandeen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 468 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, W. S.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, K. P. B. Thomson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J. N.

D. G. Murcray, J. N. Brooks, F. ll. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 107 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, J. N. Brooks, J. J. Kosters, W. J. Williams, “Atmospheric Emission at High Altitudes,” Physics Department, Denver University, Final Report AFCRL-71-0359 (1971).

Burch, D. E.

Calfee, R. F.

Conrath, B. J.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5831 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Conrath, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cox, S. K.

P. M. Kuhn, S. K. Cox, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, C.

C. Cumming, G. R. Hawkins, D. J. G. McKinnon, J. Rollins, W. R. Stephenson, “Quantitative Atlas of Infrared Stratospheric Transmission in the 2.7 Micron Region,” Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment, CARDE Techn. Rept. 546/65 Project D46-38-01-19 (1965).

France, W. L.

Fursenkov, V. A.

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, V. A. Fursenkov, Optics Spectrosc. 6, 522 (1959).

Gates, D. M.

Goldman, A.

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford U. P., New York, 1964), Vol. 1.

Grantham, D. D.

N. Sissenwine, D. D. Grantham, H. A. Salmela, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1129 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gutnick, M.

M. Gutnick, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2867 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hanel, R. A.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5831 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hartree, D. R.

D. R. Hartree, Numerical Analysis (Oxford U. P., 1958), p. 214.

Hawkins, G. R.

C. Cumming, G. R. Hawkins, D. J. G. McKinnon, J. Rollins, W. R. Stephenson, “Quantitative Atlas of Infrared Stratospheric Transmission in the 2.7 Micron Region,” Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment, CARDE Techn. Rept. 546/65 Project D46-38-01-19 (1965).

Höhn, D. H.

D. H. Höhn, Infrared Phys. 4, 239 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, J. T.

D. R. Pick, J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 95, 535 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Wil 20. E. J. Williamson, J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 91, 330 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 332 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Houghton, J. S. Seeley, Quart. J. Roy. Meterol. Soc. 86, 358 (1960).
[CrossRef]

House, F. B.

F. B. House, G. Ohring, “Inferrence of Stratospheric Temperature and Moisture Profiles from Observations of the Infrared Horizon,” GCA Corp., NASA-CR-1419 (GCA-TR-59-5-N) Contract NAS 1-7572 (1969).

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1062 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, L. D.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

Kiseleva, M. S.

B. S. Neporent, M. S. Kiseleva, A. G. Makogonenko, V. I. Schlyakhov, Appl. Opt. 6, 1845 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, Optics Spectrosc. 19, 513 (1965).

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, V. A. Fursenkov, Optics Spectrosc. 6, 522 (1959).

Kosters, J. J.

D. G. Murcray, J. N. Brooks, J. J. Kosters, W. J. Williams, “Atmospheric Emission at High Altitudes,” Physics Department, Denver University, Final Report AFCRL-71-0359 (1971).

Kuhn, P. M.

P. M. Kuhn, S. K. Cox, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Kuhn, J. D. McFadden, Month. Weather Rev. 95, 565 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kunde, V. G.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5831 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kyle, T. G.

T. G. Kyle, J. Quart, Spectrosc. Rad. Tran. 9, 1477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, T. G. Kyle, A. Goldman, Appl. Opt. 8, 2519 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Murcray, T. G. Kyle, W. J. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 5369 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Kyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 192 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lambiotte, J. J.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A Technique to Infer Atmospheric Water Vapor Mixing Ratio from Measured Horizon Radiance Profiles,” Langley Res. Center, NASA TN D-5252 (1969).

Leslie, F. E.

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, F. E. Leslie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 186 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, F. E. Leslie, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 3641 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Maclay, G. D.

Makogonenko, A. G.

Mastenbrook, J. H.

J. H. Mastenbrook, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1495 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Mastenbrook, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 299 (1968).
[CrossRef]

McFadden, J. D.

P. M. Kuhn, J. D. McFadden, Month. Weather Rev. 95, 565 (1967).
[CrossRef]

McKee, T. B.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A Technique to Infer Atmospheric Water Vapor Mixing Ratio from Measured Horizon Radiance Profiles,” Langley Res. Center, NASA TN D-5252 (1969).

McKinnon, D. J. G.

C. Cumming, G. R. Hawkins, D. J. G. McKinnon, J. Rollins, W. R. Stephenson, “Quantitative Atlas of Infrared Stratospheric Transmission in the 2.7 Micron Region,” Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment, CARDE Techn. Rept. 546/65 Project D46-38-01-19 (1965).

Möller, F.

F. Möller, E. Raschke, “Evaluation of Tiros 3 Radiation Data,” Contractor Report CR-12, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1964.

Murcray, D. G.

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, T. G. Kyle, A. Goldman, Appl. Opt. 8, 2519 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Murcray, T. G. Kyle, W. J. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 5369 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 159 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1239 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 23 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 759 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, F. E. Leslie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 186 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, F. E. Leslie, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 3641 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, J. N. Brooks, F. ll. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 107 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, J. N. Brooks, J. J. Kosters, W. J. Williams, “Atmospheric Emission at High Altitudes,” Physics Department, Denver University, Final Report AFCRL-71-0359 (1971).

Murcray, F. H.

Murcray, F. ll.

Neporent, B. S.

B. S. Neporent, M. S. Kiseleva, A. G. Makogonenko, V. I. Schlyakhov, Appl. Opt. 6, 1845 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, Optics Spectrosc. 19, 513 (1965).

M. S. Kiseleva, B. S. Neporent, V. A. Fursenkov, Optics Spectrosc. 6, 522 (1959).

Nicolsky, G. A.

Ohring, G.

F. B. House, G. Ohring, “Inferrence of Stratospheric Temperature and Moisture Profiles from Observations of the Infrared Horizon,” GCA Corp., NASA-CR-1419 (GCA-TR-59-5-N) Contract NAS 1-7572 (1969).

Palmer, C. H.

Penner, S. S.

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

Pick, D. R.

D. R. Pick, J. T. Houghton, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 95, 535 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Prabhakara, C.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5831 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Quart, J.

T. G. Kyle, J. Quart, Spectrosc. Rad. Tran. 9, 1477 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, E.

E. Raschke, W. R. Bandeen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 468 (1967).
[CrossRef]

F. Möller, E. Raschke, “Evaluation of Tiros 3 Radiation Data,” Contractor Report CR-12, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1964.

Rollins, J.

C. Cumming, G. R. Hawkins, D. J. G. McKinnon, J. Rollins, W. R. Stephenson, “Quantitative Atlas of Infrared Stratospheric Transmission in the 2.7 Micron Region,” Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment, CARDE Techn. Rept. 546/65 Project D46-38-01-19 (1965).

Sakai, H.

Salmela, H. A.

N. Sissenwine, D. D. Grantham, H. A. Salmela, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1129 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Schlyakhov, V. I.

Seeley, J. S.

J. T. Houghton, J. S. Seeley, Quart. J. Roy. Meterol. Soc. 86, 358 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, E. B.

Sissenwine, N.

N. Sissenwine, D. D. Grantham, H. A. Salmela, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 1129 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1062 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 9, 1193 (1970).

W. L. Smith, Month. Weather Rev. 96, 387 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Stauffer, F.

Stauffer, F. R.

Stephenson, W. R.

C. Cumming, G. R. Hawkins, D. J. G. McKinnon, J. Rollins, W. R. Stephenson, “Quantitative Atlas of Infrared Stratospheric Transmission in the 2.7 Micron Region,” Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment, CARDE Techn. Rept. 546/65 Project D46-38-01-19 (1965).

Strong, J.

Thomson, K. P. B.

A. W. Brewer, K. P. B. Thomson, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 187 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, R. I.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A Technique to Infer Atmospheric Water Vapor Mixing Ratio from Measured Horizon Radiance Profiles,” Langley Res. Center, NASA TN D-5252 (1969).

Williams, D.

Williams, W. J.

D. G. Murcray, T. G. Kyle, W. J. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 5369 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, T. G. Kyle, A. Goldman, Appl. Opt. 8, 2519 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 159 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1239 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 23 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 759 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, W. J. Williams, F. E. Leslie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 186 (1961).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Samples of the reduced data obtained 22 February 1971 at Holloman, New Mexico, showing the downward night emission in the. 16–30-μm region as a function of altitude. The zenith angle was 45° for all records. The zero radiance level is taken as 10−7 (W cm−2 sr−1μ−1). Successive records are displaced by two decades of the log scale. The record details are given in Table I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of calculated and measured emission spectra in the 20–30-μm region for Rec. 127, of the February flight. U(1) is derived from the 25-μm line group and corresponds to a mixing ratio of 5.8 × 10−6 g/g.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mixing ratio of water vapor as derived from a fifteen-layer (solid line) and a ten-layer (broken line) calculation using the 25-μm line group for the 22 February 1971 balloon flight. The slash near 14 km indicates the boundary between two layers with similar mixing ratio. The mixing ratio derived from a fifteen-layer calculation using the 25-μm line group for the 29 June 1971 balloon flight is shown by the dotted line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of theoretical and experimental radiance for the 25-μm line group for Rec, 42 from February 1971 flight. Fifteen layers were used in the calculated spectrum.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Balloon Flight 22 February 1971: Times, Altitudes, Pressures, and Temperatures for Selected Recordsa

Tables Icon

Table II Balloon Flight 29 June 1971: Times, Altitudes, Pressures, and Temperatures for Selected Recordsa

Equations (23)

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R ( ν , h 1 ) = ( ν , 1 ) B ( ν , 1 ) ,
R ( ν , h 2 ) = τ ( ν , 2 ) R ( ν , h 1 ) + ( ν , 2 ) B ( ν , 2 ) .
R ( ν , h n ) = τ ( ν , n ) R ( ν , h n - 1 ) + ( ν , n ) B ( ν , n ) ,             for n = 2 , , N .
R ¯ ( ν , h n ) = ν - a ν + a R ( ν , h n ) g ( ν - ν ) d ν / ν - a ν + a g ( ν - ν ) d ν .
ν 1 ν 2 R ( ν , h n ) d ν = ν 1 ν 2 R ¯ ( ν , h n ) d ν ,
F [ U ( n ) ] ν 1 ν 2 R ( ν , h n ) d ν - ν 1 ν 2 R ¯ ( ν , h n ) d ν = 0 , for U ( n ) , n = 1 , , N ,
τ ( ν , n ) = exp [ - k ( ν , n ) U ( n ) ] ,
k ( ν , n ) = Σ i k i ( ν , n ) ,
α D ( cm - 1 ) = 3.58 × 10 - 7 ν 0 ( cm - 1 ) [ θ ( K ) / M ] 1 / 2 ,
k ( ν , n ) = Σ i S i 0 ( n ) π α i ( n ) ( ν - ν 0 i ) 2 + α i 2 ( n ) ,
S 0 ( θ ) = S 0 ( θ 0 ) [ θ 0 / θ ] 3 / 2 exp [ - 1.439 E ( 1 / θ - 1 / θ 0 ) ] [ 1 - exp ( - 1.439 ν 0 / θ ) ] / [ 1 - exp ( - 1.439 ν 0 / θ 0 ) ] ,
P e = P t + 4 p ,
α 0 ( θ ) = α 0 ( θ 0 ) ( θ 0 / θ ) 0.62 .
P ¯ n = 0.5 ( P n + P n - 1 ) ,
U i + 1 ( n ) = U i ( n ) - F [ U ( n ) ] / F [ U ( n ) ] ,
F [ U ( n ) ] = ν 1 ν 2 - k ( ν , n ) exp [ - k ( ν , n ) U ( n ) ] R ( ν , h n - 1 ) d ν + ν 1 ν 2 k ( ν , n ) exp [ - k ( ν , n ) U ( n ) ] B ( ν , n ) d ν ,
R ( ν , h n ) = m = n 1 B ( ν , m ) [ T ( ν , n , m + 1 ) - T ( ν , n , m ) ] ,
T ( ν , n , m ) = j = n m τ ( ν , j ) ,
T ( ν , n , n + 1 ) = 1.
R ( ν , h n ) = h n B ( ν , h ) T ( ν , h ) h d h ,
R ( ν , h n - 1 ) τ ( ν , n ) d ν ~ R ( ν , h n - 1 ) d ν ,
Δ R = R ( ν , h n ) d ν - R ( ν , h n - 1 ) d ν = [ 1 - τ ( ν , n ) ] B ( ν , n ) d ν ,
Π τ ( ν , i ) d ν Π τ ¯ ( ν , i ) d ν ,

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