Abstract

An apparatus for the measurement of attenuation of light in thin-film waveguides is described. It involves a prism that rides on a liquid film along the guide and couples the light out of the guide. A spatial resolution of ~0.5 mm and an accuracy of 0.02 dB/cm were achieved.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, D. R. Olson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).
  3. F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.
  4. R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, Appl. Opt. 11, 428 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. P. Cargille Laboratories, Inc., Cedar Grove, New Jersey
  8. H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. P. Sosnowski, H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 310 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1972 (5)

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, Appl. Opt. 11, 428 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Sosnowski, H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 310 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, D. R. Olson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Chandross, E. A.

H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, J. W.

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, D. R. Olson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Franke, E. A.

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Knecht, W. L.

F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.

McGraw, R. B.

F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.

Olson, D. R.

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, D. R. Olson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Sloan, E. L.

F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.

Sosnowski, T. P.

T. P. Sosnowski, H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 310 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Tomlinson, W. J.

H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, Appl. Opt. 11, 428 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, Appl. Opt. 11, 428 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Sosnowski, H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 310 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Webster, J. C.

F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, D. R. Olson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Ulrich, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Franke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 213 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Sosnowski, H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 310 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. P. Weber, W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, D. R. Olson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Other (2)

F. Zernike, E. L. Sloan, J. C. Webster, R. B. McGraw, W. L. Knecht, OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics, Las Vegas, Feb. 1972, paper TuA9.

R. P. Cargille Laboratories, Inc., Cedar Grove, New Jersey

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Loss-measuring apparatus. Schematic view from top. (a) Complete arrangement. The laser beam is modulated by a chopper and launched with prism 1 into the thin film. Prism 2 couples light out of the film. The output passes through an iris, is diffused by a Teflon sheet, and enters the detector. Prism 2 is moved along the film by the movement of the slide. Bearings A1, A2, and A3 allow prism 2 to ride in continuous contact with the film. The weight of 1 g via the prism lever gives prism 2 a force of ~10 dynes against the film. The support screw prevents the film substrate from bending. The monitor measures the relative intensity of the injected light. The stop prevents light scattered from the edge of prism 1 from reaching the detector. (b) Detail of coupling at prism 2. Light is coupled by the contact liquid into prism 2. The three outputs come from (1) light reaching prism 2 directly through the air, (2) light guided in the film, and (3) light trapped in the substrate. The angle α of the leading meniscus of the contact liquid should be larger than the coupling angle β of the guided film wave in order to maintain a well-controlled geometry of the output beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Investigation of a film of unexposed photoresist. (a) Photograph of the light-guiding film. Light is coupled into the film at the left-hand side. A scratch partially interrupts the light guide under the arrow. (b) Intensity of the light coupled out of the film as a function of position z.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recording of spatial mode beating of TE0 and TM0 modes along the guided beam in a birefringent film of polystyrene.

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