Abstract

This paper describes the preparation and properties of rf sputtered barium silicate films that are suitable for use as transmission media in integrated optical circuits. It is shown that the films, which can be produced with a wide range of refractive indices by suitable selection of the ratio of the target constituents, exhibit low optical attenuation. The techniques used to deposit the films and the effect on loss of a number of parameters including pressure, film thickness, and substrate bias are discussed.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).
  2. J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Proc. IEEE 58, 1504 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 29, 149 (1968).
  4. J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S12 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).
  6. P. D. Davidse, L. I. Maissel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 33 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).
  8. E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).
  9. E. Gillam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 55 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Nishimura, Y. Murayana, K. Dota, H. Matsumaru, “Deposition of Insulating Films for Multi-Layer Interconnected Substrates by RF Sputtering of Cornings 7059 Glass,” in Digest of the Third Symposium on the Deposition of Thin Films by Sputtering (Bendix Corp., Rochester, 1969), pp. 96–106.
  11. G. V. Jorgenson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2672 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 751 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. W. Hickmott, Appl. Phy. Lett. 15, 232 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. W. Hickmott, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2543 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. I. Maissel, R. E. Jones, C. L. Standley, IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 176 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 24, 566 (1968).
  17. D. F. Nelson, J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).
  19. W. D. Kingery, Introduction to Ceramics (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 72–3.
  20. W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187 (1970).
  21. F. A. Abeles, “Optics of Thin Films,” Advanced Optical Techniques, A. C. S. Van Heel; Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967). pp. 143–148.
  22. P. Escola, Am. J. Sci. 4, 331 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. E. Goell, Appl. Opt. 12, 729 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters, 14, 291 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (3)

J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S12 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hickmott, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2543 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 751 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (3)

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187 (1970).

L. I. Maissel, R. E. Jones, C. L. Standley, IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Proc. IEEE 58, 1504 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (7)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

T. W. Hickmott, Appl. Phy. Lett. 15, 232 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters, 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 24, 566 (1968).

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 29, 149 (1968).

1967 (1)

P. D. Davidse, L. I. Maissel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 33 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. V. Jorgenson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2672 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

E. Gillam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 55 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

D. F. Nelson, J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1922 (1)

P. Escola, Am. J. Sci. 4, 331 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, F. A.

F. A. Abeles, “Optics of Thin Films,” Advanced Optical Techniques, A. C. S. Van Heel; Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967). pp. 143–148.

Davidse, P. D.

P. D. Davidse, L. I. Maissel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 33 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dota, K.

T. Nishimura, Y. Murayana, K. Dota, H. Matsumaru, “Deposition of Insulating Films for Multi-Layer Interconnected Substrates by RF Sputtering of Cornings 7059 Glass,” in Digest of the Third Symposium on the Deposition of Thin Films by Sputtering (Bendix Corp., Rochester, 1969), pp. 96–106.

Escola, P.

P. Escola, Am. J. Sci. 4, 331 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Gillam, E.

E. Gillam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 55 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Goell, J. E.

J. E. Goell, Appl. Opt. 12, 729 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Proc. IEEE 58, 1504 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

Hickmott, T. W.

T. W. Hickmott, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2543 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hickmott, Appl. Phy. Lett. 15, 232 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. E.

L. I. Maissel, R. E. Jones, C. L. Standley, IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, G. V.

G. V. Jorgenson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2672 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187 (1970).

Kingery, W. D.

W. D. Kingery, Introduction to Ceramics (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 72–3.

Maissel, L. I.

L. I. Maissel, R. E. Jones, C. L. Standley, IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Davidse, L. I. Maissel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 33 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters, 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Matsumaru, H.

T. Nishimura, Y. Murayana, K. Dota, H. Matsumaru, “Deposition of Insulating Films for Multi-Layer Interconnected Substrates by RF Sputtering of Cornings 7059 Glass,” in Digest of the Third Symposium on the Deposition of Thin Films by Sputtering (Bendix Corp., Rochester, 1969), pp. 96–106.

McKenna, J.

D. F. Nelson, J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

Murayana, Y.

T. Nishimura, Y. Murayana, K. Dota, H. Matsumaru, “Deposition of Insulating Films for Multi-Layer Interconnected Substrates by RF Sputtering of Cornings 7059 Glass,” in Digest of the Third Symposium on the Deposition of Thin Films by Sputtering (Bendix Corp., Rochester, 1969), pp. 96–106.

Nelson, D. F.

D. F. Nelson, J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

T. Nishimura, Y. Murayana, K. Dota, H. Matsumaru, “Deposition of Insulating Films for Multi-Layer Interconnected Substrates by RF Sputtering of Cornings 7059 Glass,” in Digest of the Third Symposium on the Deposition of Thin Films by Sputtering (Bendix Corp., Rochester, 1969), pp. 96–106.

O’Neill, J. J.

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 29, 149 (1968).

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 24, 566 (1968).

Puotinen, D. A.

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187 (1970).

Standley, C. L.

L. I. Maissel, R. E. Jones, C. L. Standley, IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Proc. IEEE 58, 1504 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters, 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters, 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Vossen, J. L.

J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 751 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S12 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 29, 149 (1968).

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 24, 566 (1968).

Wehner, G. K.

G. V. Jorgenson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2672 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Sci. (1)

P. Escola, Am. J. Sci. 4, 331 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

T. W. Hickmott, Appl. Phy. Lett. 15, 232 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Letters (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Letters, 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (5)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

L. I. Maissel, R. E. Jones, C. L. Standley, IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. F. Nelson, J. McKenna, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4057 (1957).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hickmott, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2543 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Jorgenson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2672 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

E. Gillam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11, 55 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (3)

P. D. Davidse, L. I. Maissel, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 33 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 751 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Vossen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, S12 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Proc. IEEE 58, 1504 (1970).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (3)

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 29, 149 (1968).

J. L. Vossen, J. J. O’Neill, RCA Rev. 24, 566 (1968).

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, RCA Rev. 31, 187 (1970).

Other (3)

F. A. Abeles, “Optics of Thin Films,” Advanced Optical Techniques, A. C. S. Van Heel; Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1967). pp. 143–148.

W. D. Kingery, Introduction to Ceramics (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 72–3.

T. Nishimura, Y. Murayana, K. Dota, H. Matsumaru, “Deposition of Insulating Films for Multi-Layer Interconnected Substrates by RF Sputtering of Cornings 7059 Glass,” in Digest of the Third Symposium on the Deposition of Thin Films by Sputtering (Bendix Corp., Rochester, 1969), pp. 96–106.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Slab waveguide

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sputtering system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index vs bulk wt % BaO for barium-silicate films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Attenuation vs film thickness for film sputtered from a 30% BaO cathode onto a polished lab slide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Back of substrate showing blemishes caused by discharge to the backing plate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-prism loss measuring apparatus. Light is injected from the right and exits from the left. In addition to the input beam, several reflected beams are visible on the right.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of Results

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 1 > n 2 n 3 ,
x BaCO 3 + y SiO 2 x BaO · y SiO 2 + x CO 2 .

Metrics