Abstract

Extinction coefficients k(λ) for water at 25°C were determined through a broad spectral region by manually smoothing a point by point graph of k(λ) vs wavelength λ that was plotted for data obtained from a review of the scientific literature on the optical constants of water. Absorption bands representing k(λ) were postulated where data were not available in the vacuum uv and soft x-ray regions. A subtractive Kramers-Kronig analysis of the combined postulated and smoothed portions of the k(λ) spectrum provided the index of refraction n(λ) for the spectral region 200 nm ≤ λ ≤ 200 μm.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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1972

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R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B1, 818 (1970).

Yu. I. Rabinovich, V. V. Melen tyev, Trans. Glav. Geof. Observ. 235, 78 (1970).

1969

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Erlander, Sci. J. 5A, 60 (1969).

M. R. Querry, B. Curnutte, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1299 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Schiffer, D. F. Hornig, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4150 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966); Ann. Geophys. 21, 462 (1965).

M. Halmann, I. Platzner, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 580 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dragert, N. W. B. Stone, B. Curnutte, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 64 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

E. K. Plyler, N. Griff, Appl. Opt. 4, 1663 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. Bagdade, M. Tinkham, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 1209 (1965).

W. K. Thompson, Trans. Faraday Soc. (London) 61, 2635 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. Goldstein, S. S. Penner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 4, 441 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

J. L. Weeks, G. M. A. C. Meaburn, S. Gordon, Radiation Res. 19, 559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 962 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961

A. E. Stanevich, N. G. Yaroslavskii, Opt. Spektrosk. 10, 538 (1961) [Opt. Spectrosc. 10, 278 (1961)].

1960

J. Barrett, J. H. Bakendale, Trans. Faraday Soc. (London) 56, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrett, A. L. Mansell, Nature 187, 138 (1960).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Price, P. V. Harris, G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, Nature 188, 45 (1960).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popov, Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 790 (1960) [Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430 (1969)].

1959

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spektrosk. 7, 311 (1959) [Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 201 (1959)].

R. M. Rampolla, R. C. Miller, C. P. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 566 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1955

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, Compt. Rend. 240, 954 (1955).

1954

1952

J. A. Lane, J. A. Saxton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 400 (1952).

J. A. Saxton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 473 (1952).

1951

1948

C. H. Collie, J. B. Hasted, D. M. Ritson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 60, 71, 145 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1941

1940

J. J. Fox, A. E. Martin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A174, 234 (1940).

1939

1938

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31, 154 (1938).

1937

A. Esau, G. Baz, Phys. Z. 38, 774 (1937).

1933

1928

M. K. Tsukamoto, Rev. Opt. 7, 89 (1928).

Acquista, N.

Ahrenkiel, R. K.

Allen, A. O.

A. O. Allen, The Radiation Chemistry of Water and Aqueous Solutions (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1961), pp. 1–3.

Aperovich, L. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popov, Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 790 (1960) [Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430 (1969)].

Arakawa, E. T.

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B1, 818 (1970).

Bagdade, W.

W. Bagdade, M. Tinkham, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 1209 (1965).

Bakendale, J. H.

J. Barrett, J. H. Bakendale, Trans. Faraday Soc. (London) 56, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, J.

J. Barrett, J. H. Bakendale, Trans. Faraday Soc. (London) 56, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrett, A. L. Mansell, Nature 187, 138 (1960).
[CrossRef]

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J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

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A. Esau, G. Baz, Phys. Z. 38, 774 (1937).

Beaven, G. H.

W. C. Price, P. V. Harris, G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, Nature 188, 45 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31, 154 (1938).

Birkhoff, R. D.

G. D. Kerr, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, R. D. Birkhoff, L. R. Painter, Phys. Rev. A5, 2523 (1972).

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brown, F. C.

R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B1, 818 (1970).

Burgova, M. P.

K. Y. Kondratyev, M. P. Burgova, I. F. Gainulin, G. F. Totunova, Problems in the Physics of the Atmosphere-2 (Leningrad State University, 1964).

Centeno, M.

Chamberlain, J. E.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chantry, G. W.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. L.

Collie, C. H.

C. H. Collie, J. B. Hasted, D. M. Ritson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 60, 71, 145 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Collins, J. R.

J. R. Collins, Phys. Rev. 55, 470 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, J. A.

Curnutte, B.

Dechambenoy, C.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966); Ann. Geophys. 21, 462 (1965).

Dorsey, N. E.

N. E. Dorsey, Properties of Ordinary Water-Substance (Reinhold, New York, 1940), pp. 279–395. Optical absorption characteristics of water as listed in this book are based on material from forty-nine references that date back to 1895.

Dragert, D. A.

Eisenberg, D.

D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann, The Structures and Properties of Water (Oxford U. P., New York, 1969).

Engstrom, A.

A. Engstrom, X-Ray Microanalysis in Biology and Medicine (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1962), p. 50.

Erlander, S. R.

S. R. Erlander, Sci. J. 5A, 60 (1969).

Esau, A.

A. Esau, G. Baz, Phys. Z. 38, 774 (1937).

Fox, J. J.

J. J. Fox, A. E. Martin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A174, 234 (1940).

Gainulin, I. F.

K. Y. Kondratyev, M. P. Burgova, I. F. Gainulin, G. F. Totunova, Problems in the Physics of the Atmosphere-2 (Leningrad State University, 1964).

Gebbie, H. A.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, R.

R. Goldstein, S. S. Penner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 4, 441 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, Atmospheric Radiation. 1: Theoretical Basis (Oxford U. P., London, 1964), pp. 415–416.

Gordon, S.

J. L. Weeks, G. M. A. C. Meaburn, S. Gordon, Radiation Res. 19, 559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Griff, N.

Hale, G. M.

Halmann, M.

M. Halmann, I. Platzner, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 580 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, R. N.

G. D. Kerr, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, R. D. Birkhoff, L. R. Painter, Phys. Rev. A5, 2523 (1972).

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Harris, P. V.

W. C. Price, P. V. Harris, G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, Nature 188, 45 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hasted, J. B.

C. H. Collie, J. B. Hasted, D. M. Ritson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 60, 71, 145 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Hodgman, C. D.

Holland, W. E.

M. R. Querry, R. C. Waring, W. E. Holland, G. M. Hale, W. Nijm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 849 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hale, W. E. Holland, M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt., submitted on 29June1972 for review.

Hornig, D. F.

J. Schiffer, D. F. Hornig, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4150 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

James, H. R.

G. L. Clarke, H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).
[CrossRef]

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. 31, 154 (1938).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968), pp. 47–62.

Johnson, E. A.

W. C. Price, P. V. Harris, G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, Nature 188, 45 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. N.

R. P. Young, R. N. Jones, Chem. Rev. 71, 219 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kartha, V. B.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kauzmann, W.

D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann, The Structures and Properties of Water (Oxford U. P., New York, 1969).

Kerr, G. D.

G. D. Kerr, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, R. D. Birkhoff, L. R. Painter, Phys. Rev. A5, 2523 (1972).

Kislovskii, L. D.

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spektrosk. 7, 311 (1959) [Opt. Spectrosc. 7, 201 (1959)].

Kondratyev, K.

K. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, Vol. 12, Internat. Geophys. Series (Academic Press, New York, 1969), pp. 107–123.
[CrossRef]

Kondratyev, K. Y.

K. Y. Kondratyev, M. P. Burgova, I. F. Gainulin, G. F. Totunova, Problems in the Physics of the Atmosphere-2 (Leningrad State University, 1964).

Lane, J. A.

J. A. Lane, J. A. Saxton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 400 (1952).

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, Compt. Rend. 240, 954 (1955).

Mansell, A. L.

J. Barrett, A. L. Mansell, Nature 187, 138 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A. E.

J. J. Fox, A. E. Martin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A174, 234 (1940).

Meaburn, G. M. A. C.

J. L. Weeks, G. M. A. C. Meaburn, S. Gordon, Radiation Res. 19, 559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Melen tyev, V. V.

K. S. Shifrin, Yu. I. Rabinovich, V. V. Melen tyev, Izv.-Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 7, 661 (1971).

Yu. I. Rabinovich, V. V. Melen tyev, Trans. Glav. Geof. Observ. 235, 78 (1970).

Mikhailov, B. A.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popov, Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 790 (1960) [Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430 (1969)].

Miller, R. C.

R. M. Rampolla, R. C. Miller, C. P. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 566 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Nijm, W.

Nyllie, G.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Painter, L. R.

G. D. Kerr, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, R. D. Birkhoff, L. R. Painter, Phys. Rev. A5, 2523 (1972).

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Painter, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, R. D. Birkhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 282 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Penner, S. S.

R. Goldstein, S. S. Penner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 4, 441 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Petty, C. C.

Platzner, I.

M. Halmann, I. Platzner, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 580 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Plyler, E. K.

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pontier, L.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966); Ann. Geophys. 21, 462 (1965).

Popov, S. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popov, Opt. Spektrosk. 27, 790 (1960) [Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430 (1969)].

Price, W. C.

W. C. Price, P. V. Harris, G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, Nature 188, 45 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Rabinovich, Yu. I.

K. S. Shifrin, Yu. I. Rabinovich, V. V. Melen tyev, Izv.-Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 7, 661 (1971).

Yu. I. Rabinovich, V. V. Melen tyev, Trans. Glav. Geof. Observ. 235, 78 (1970).

Rampolla, R. M.

R. M. Rampolla, R. C. Miller, C. P. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 566 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ritson, D. M.

C. H. Collie, J. B. Hasted, D. M. Ritson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 60, 71, 145 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, C. W.

Rush, A. N.

Rusk, A. N.

Saint-Guilly, B.

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, Compt. Rend. 240, 954 (1955).

Saxton, J. A.

J. A. Saxton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 473 (1952).

J. A. Lane, J. A. Saxton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 400 (1952).

Schiffer, J.

J. Schiffer, D. F. Hornig, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4150 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Shifrin, K. S.

K. S. Shifrin, Yu. I. Rabinovich, V. V. Melen tyev, Izv.-Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 7, 661 (1971).

Smith, R. C.

Smyth, C. P.

R. M. Rampolla, R. C. Miller, C. P. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 566 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Stanevich, A. E.

A. E. Stanevich, N. G. Yaroslavskii, Opt. Spektrosk. 10, 538 (1961) [Opt. Spectrosc. 10, 278 (1961)].

Stevens, W. H.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stone, N. W. B.

D. A. Dragert, N. W. B. Stone, B. Curnutte, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 64 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, S. A.

Taylor, T. B.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, H. A. Gebbie, N. W. B. Stone, T. B. Taylor, G. Nyllie, Nature 210, 790 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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M. K. Tsukamoto, Rev. Opt. 7, 89 (1928).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Extinction coefficients of water for the 0–2000-Å spectral region. Notation and curves are described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction coefficients of water for the 200–1000-nm spectral region. Well known data that were in notable disagreement with the curve finally selected for k(λ) are plotted as points on the graph. Notation and curves are described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction coefficients of water for the 0.95–2.6-μm spectral region. Curves are described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extinction coefficients of water for the 2.5–18.5-μm spectral region. Curves are described in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction coefficients of water for the 10–106μm spectral region. Notation and curves are described in the text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Index of refraction of water for the spectral regions 0.2–200 μm. Descriptions of the curves and the symbols are presented in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical Constants of Water

Equations (2)

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n ( λ 0 ) = 1 + 2 λ 0 2 π 0 k ( λ ) d λ λ ( λ 0 2 - λ 2 ) .
n ( λ 0 ) = n ( λ 1 ) + Prin . [ 2 ( λ 1 2 - λ 0 2 ) π 0 λ k ( λ ) d λ ( λ 0 2 - λ 2 ) ( λ 1 2 - λ 2 ) ] ,

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