Abstract

A new method for the calculation of the Rayleigh factor from low angle light scattering measurements is developed. This method does not require a uniform intensity illuminating beam, hence efficiently utilizes all the beam from a focused laser source. Scattering volume is then very small, reducing sample volume and interference from contaminant particles. All the parameters necessary for the calculation of the Rayleigh factor (including the exact dependence on sample refractive index) are measurable, hence absolute calibration is possible. Over-all error is estimated to be less than 2.3% under specified conditions. Measurements are possible at scattering angles as small as 2° obviating the need for angular extrapolations in the determination of molecular weight of most dissolved samples. Rayleigh factors at 22°C, 633 nm, and a scattering angle of 4° for water, methanol, benzene, and toluene, were found to be, respectively, 0.907, 2.56, 12.15, and 13.45 × 10−6 cm−1.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Kaye, A. J. Havlik, J. B. McDaniel, Polymer Lett. 9, 695 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. J. Havlik, W. I. Kaye, “Measurement of Scattered Laser Light at Small Angles from Macromolecules in Solution,” Rayleigh Symposium, ACS, Washington D.C. (Sept. 1971).
  3. J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. D. Parfitt, J. A. Wood, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 805 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. W. Billmeyer, H. I. Levine, P. J. Livesey, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35, 204 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Ahad, B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, 1509 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Cohen, H. Eisenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3881 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. J. Coumou, E. L. Mackor, J. Hijmans, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1539 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Dezelic, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 185 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. R. Jennings, H. G. Jerrard, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 2025 (1964).
  13. B. R. Jennings, H. Plummer, J. Phys. D 1, 1201 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. P. Kratohvil, C. Smart, J. Colloid Sci. 20, 875 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, L45 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. P. Kratohvil, T. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 3, 221 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. I. Carr, B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1616 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. P. Kratohvil, L. E. Oppenheimer, M. Kerker, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2834 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. P. Kratohvil, Pub. 1573 (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 59.
  20. B. A. Brice, M. Halwer, R. Speiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 768 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. A. Brice, M. Halwer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 340 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Tomimatsu, K. J. Palmer, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1720 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. P. Kratohvil, J. Coll. Interface Sci. 21, 498 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Heller, J. Witeczek, J. Phys. Chem. 74, 4241 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Kerker, J. P. Kratohvil, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 303 (1964).
  26. J. J. Hermans, S. Levinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 460 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Kremen, J. J. Shapiro, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 500 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. M. Kushner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 155 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. E. M. Keijzers, J. J. Van Aartsen, W. Prins, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2874 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. McIntyre, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68A, 87 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. K. Carpenter, W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. C. Hawes, Appl. Opt. 10, 1246 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. N. C. Ford, J. E. M. Owen, F. E. Karasz, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 49, 228 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic Press, New York, 1969).
  35. B. Chincholi, A. J. Havlik, R. D. Vold, unpublished results.
  36. J. L. Lundberg, E. J. Mooney, K. R. Gardner, Science 145, 1308 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. M. J. Cardamonre, J. L. Hunt, J. R. Stevens, Chem. Phys, Phys, Lett. 12, 628 (1972).
  38. R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3741 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. J. Cantow, Makromol. Chem. 18/19, 367 (1956).
    [Crossref]

1972 (2)

T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cardamonre, J. L. Hunt, J. R. Stevens, Chem. Phys, Phys, Lett. 12, 628 (1972).

1971 (3)

R. C. Hawes, Appl. Opt. 10, 1246 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kaye, A. J. Havlik, J. B. McDaniel, Polymer Lett. 9, 695 (1971).
[Crossref]

F. W. Billmeyer, H. I. Levine, P. J. Livesey, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35, 204 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (5)

E. Ahad, B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, 1509 (1970).
[Crossref]

B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, L45 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, T. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 3, 221 (1970).
[Crossref]

W. Heller, J. Witeczek, J. Phys. Chem. 74, 4241 (1970).
[Crossref]

N. C. Ford, J. E. M. Owen, F. E. Karasz, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 49, 228 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

B. R. Jennings, H. Plummer, J. Phys. D 1, 1201 (1968).
[Crossref]

G. D. Parfitt, J. A. Wood, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 805 (1968).
[Crossref]

1966 (3)

G. Dezelic, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 185 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, L. E. Oppenheimer, M. Kerker, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2834 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, J. Coll. Interface Sci. 21, 498 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (3)

A. E. M. Keijzers, J. J. Van Aartsen, W. Prins, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2874 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, C. Smart, J. Colloid Sci. 20, 875 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. Cohen, H. Eisenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3881 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (6)

D. J. Coumou, E. L. Mackor, J. Hijmans, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1539 (1964).
[Crossref]

D. McIntyre, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68A, 87 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lundberg, E. J. Mooney, K. R. Gardner, Science 145, 1308 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Jennings, H. G. Jerrard, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 2025 (1964).

M. Kerker, J. P. Kratohvil, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 303 (1964).

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3741 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

Y. Tomimatsu, K. J. Palmer, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1720 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
[Crossref]

1956 (2)

H. J. Cantow, Makromol. Chem. 18/19, 367 (1956).
[Crossref]

D. K. Carpenter, W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1956).
[Crossref]

1954 (4)

1951 (1)

1950 (2)

Ahad, E.

E. Ahad, B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, 1509 (1970).
[Crossref]

Billmeyer, F. W.

F. W. Billmeyer, H. I. Levine, P. J. Livesey, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35, 204 (1971).
[Crossref]

Brice, B. A.

Cantow, H. J.

H. J. Cantow, Makromol. Chem. 18/19, 367 (1956).
[Crossref]

Cardamonre, M. J.

M. J. Cardamonre, J. L. Hunt, J. R. Stevens, Chem. Phys, Phys, Lett. 12, 628 (1972).

Carpenter, D. K.

D. K. Carpenter, W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1956).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. I.

C. I. Carr, B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1616 (1950).
[Crossref]

Chincholi, B.

B. Chincholi, A. J. Havlik, R. D. Vold, unpublished results.

Cohen, G.

G. Cohen, H. Eisenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3881 (1965).
[Crossref]

Coumou, D. J.

D. J. Coumou, E. L. Mackor, J. Hijmans, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1539 (1964).
[Crossref]

Delumyea, R. G.

T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
[Crossref]

Dezelic, G.

G. Dezelic, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 185 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
[Crossref]

Eisenberg, H.

G. Cohen, H. Eisenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3881 (1965).
[Crossref]

Ford, N. C.

N. C. Ford, J. E. M. Owen, F. E. Karasz, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 49, 228 (1970).
[Crossref]

Gardner, K. R.

J. L. Lundberg, E. J. Mooney, K. R. Gardner, Science 145, 1308 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gingello, A. D.

T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
[Crossref]

Halwer, M.

Havlik, A. J.

W. Kaye, A. J. Havlik, J. B. McDaniel, Polymer Lett. 9, 695 (1971).
[Crossref]

A. J. Havlik, W. I. Kaye, “Measurement of Scattered Laser Light at Small Angles from Macromolecules in Solution,” Rayleigh Symposium, ACS, Washington D.C. (Sept. 1971).

B. Chincholi, A. J. Havlik, R. D. Vold, unpublished results.

Hawes, R. C.

Heller, W.

W. Heller, J. Witeczek, J. Phys. Chem. 74, 4241 (1970).
[Crossref]

Hermans, J. J.

Hijmans, J.

D. J. Coumou, E. L. Mackor, J. Hijmans, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1539 (1964).
[Crossref]

Hunt, J. L.

M. J. Cardamonre, J. L. Hunt, J. R. Stevens, Chem. Phys, Phys, Lett. 12, 628 (1972).

Jennings, B. R.

E. Ahad, B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, 1509 (1970).
[Crossref]

B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, L45 (1970).
[Crossref]

B. R. Jennings, H. Plummer, J. Phys. D 1, 1201 (1968).
[Crossref]

B. R. Jennings, H. G. Jerrard, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 2025 (1964).

Jerrard, H. G.

B. R. Jennings, H. G. Jerrard, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 2025 (1964).

Karasz, F. E.

N. C. Ford, J. E. M. Owen, F. E. Karasz, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 49, 228 (1970).
[Crossref]

Kaye, W.

W. Kaye, A. J. Havlik, J. B. McDaniel, Polymer Lett. 9, 695 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kaye, W. I.

A. J. Havlik, W. I. Kaye, “Measurement of Scattered Laser Light at Small Angles from Macromolecules in Solution,” Rayleigh Symposium, ACS, Washington D.C. (Sept. 1971).

Keijzers, A. E. M.

A. E. M. Keijzers, J. J. Van Aartsen, W. Prins, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2874 (1965).
[Crossref]

Kerker, M.

J. P. Kratohvil, L. E. Oppenheimer, M. Kerker, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2834 (1966).
[Crossref]

M. Kerker, J. P. Kratohvil, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 303 (1964).

J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
[Crossref]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic Press, New York, 1969).

Kratohvil, J. P.

J. P. Kratohvil, T. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 3, 221 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, L. E. Oppenheimer, M. Kerker, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2834 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, J. Coll. Interface Sci. 21, 498 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, C. Smart, J. Colloid Sci. 20, 875 (1965).
[Crossref]

M. Kerker, J. P. Kratohvil, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 303 (1964).

J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, Pub. 1573 (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 59.

Kremen, J.

Krigbaum, W. R.

D. K. Carpenter, W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1956).
[Crossref]

Kushner, L. M.

Leite, R. C. C.

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3741 (1964).
[Crossref]

Levine, H. I.

F. W. Billmeyer, H. I. Levine, P. J. Livesey, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35, 204 (1971).
[Crossref]

Levinson, S.

Livesey, P. J.

F. W. Billmeyer, H. I. Levine, P. J. Livesey, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35, 204 (1971).
[Crossref]

Lou, R. L. H.

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[Crossref]

Lundberg, J. L.

J. L. Lundberg, E. J. Mooney, K. R. Gardner, Science 145, 1308 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackor, E. L.

D. J. Coumou, E. L. Mackor, J. Hijmans, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1539 (1964).
[Crossref]

Maron, S. H.

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[Crossref]

Matijevic, E.

M. Kerker, J. P. Kratohvil, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 303 (1964).

J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
[Crossref]

McDaniel, J. B.

W. Kaye, A. J. Havlik, J. B. McDaniel, Polymer Lett. 9, 695 (1971).
[Crossref]

McIntyre, D.

D. McIntyre, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68A, 87 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mooney, E. J.

J. L. Lundberg, E. J. Mooney, K. R. Gardner, Science 145, 1308 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, R. S.

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3741 (1964).
[Crossref]

Oppenheimer, L. E.

J. P. Kratohvil, L. E. Oppenheimer, M. Kerker, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2834 (1966).
[Crossref]

Owen, J. E. M.

N. C. Ford, J. E. M. Owen, F. E. Karasz, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 49, 228 (1970).
[Crossref]

Palmer, K. J.

Y. Tomimatsu, K. J. Palmer, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1720 (1963).
[Crossref]

Parfitt, G. D.

G. D. Parfitt, J. A. Wood, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 805 (1968).
[Crossref]

Plummer, H.

B. R. Jennings, H. Plummer, J. Phys. D 1, 1201 (1968).
[Crossref]

Porto, S. P.

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3741 (1964).
[Crossref]

Prins, W.

A. E. M. Keijzers, J. J. Van Aartsen, W. Prins, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2874 (1965).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J. J.

Smart, C.

J. P. Kratohvil, C. Smart, J. Colloid Sci. 20, 875 (1965).
[Crossref]

Speiser, R.

Stevens, J. R.

M. J. Cardamonre, J. L. Hunt, J. R. Stevens, Chem. Phys, Phys, Lett. 12, 628 (1972).

Tomimatsu, Y.

Y. Tomimatsu, K. J. Palmer, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1720 (1963).
[Crossref]

Van Aartsen, J. J.

A. E. M. Keijzers, J. J. Van Aartsen, W. Prins, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2874 (1965).
[Crossref]

Vold, R. D.

B. Chincholi, A. J. Havlik, R. D. Vold, unpublished results.

Volosin, M. T.

T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wallace, T. P.

T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, T. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 3, 221 (1970).
[Crossref]

Witeczek, J.

W. Heller, J. Witeczek, J. Phys. Chem. 74, 4241 (1970).
[Crossref]

Wood, J. A.

G. D. Parfitt, J. A. Wood, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 805 (1968).
[Crossref]

Zimm, B. H.

C. I. Carr, B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1616 (1950).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Discuss. Faraday Soc. (1)

N. C. Ford, J. E. M. Owen, F. E. Karasz, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 49, 228 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. E. M. Keijzers, J. J. Van Aartsen, W. Prins, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2874 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (5)

D. K. Carpenter, W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1956).
[Crossref]

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3741 (1964).
[Crossref]

G. Cohen, H. Eisenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3881 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. Dezelic, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 185 (1966).
[Crossref]

C. I. Carr, B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1616 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Coll. Interface Sci. (1)

J. P. Kratohvil, J. Coll. Interface Sci. 21, 498 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

F. W. Billmeyer, H. I. Levine, P. J. Livesey, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35, 204 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Sci. (1)

J. P. Kratohvil, C. Smart, J. Colloid Sci. 20, 875 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Phys. Chem. (3)

Y. Tomimatsu, K. J. Palmer, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1720 (1963).
[Crossref]

W. Heller, J. Witeczek, J. Phys. Chem. 74, 4241 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, L. E. Oppenheimer, M. Kerker, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2834 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (4)

B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, L45 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kratohvil, T. P. Wallace, J. Phys. D 3, 221 (1970).
[Crossref]

E. Ahad, B. R. Jennings, J. Phys. D 3, 1509 (1970).
[Crossref]

B. R. Jennings, H. Plummer, J. Phys. D 1, 1201 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Polymer Sci. (4)

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[Crossref]

B. R. Jennings, H. G. Jerrard, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 2025 (1964).

J. P. Kratohvil, G. Dezelic, M. Kerker, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. 57, 59 (1962).
[Crossref]

M. Kerker, J. P. Kratohvil, E. Matijevic, J. Polymer Sci. A2, 303 (1964).

J. Polymer Sci. A2 (1)

T. P. Wallace, M. T. Volosin, R. G. Delumyea, A. D. Gingello, J. Polymer Sci. A2 10, 193 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

D. McIntyre, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 68A, 87 (1964).
[Crossref]

Makromol. Chem. (1)

H. J. Cantow, Makromol. Chem. 18/19, 367 (1956).
[Crossref]

Phys, Lett. (1)

M. J. Cardamonre, J. L. Hunt, J. R. Stevens, Chem. Phys, Phys, Lett. 12, 628 (1972).

Polymer Lett. (1)

W. Kaye, A. J. Havlik, J. B. McDaniel, Polymer Lett. 9, 695 (1971).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. L. Lundberg, E. J. Mooney, K. R. Gardner, Science 145, 1308 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (2)

G. D. Parfitt, J. A. Wood, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 805 (1968).
[Crossref]

D. J. Coumou, E. L. Mackor, J. Hijmans, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1539 (1964).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. J. Havlik, W. I. Kaye, “Measurement of Scattered Laser Light at Small Angles from Macromolecules in Solution,” Rayleigh Symposium, ACS, Washington D.C. (Sept. 1971).

J. P. Kratohvil, Pub. 1573 (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 59.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic Press, New York, 1969).

B. Chincholi, A. J. Havlik, R. D. Vold, unpublished results.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of optical system. Upper diagram for the measurement of Gθ, lower diagram for the measurement of Gθ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detector response function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth of focus geometry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Kc/ R ¯ θ vs c for NBS706 polystyrene in toluene.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table I Scattering and Solid Angles

Tables Icon

Table II Equivalent Sample Path Values I′/nγ (cm)

Tables Icon

Table III Scattering Data for Watera

Tables Icon

Table IV Analysis of Probable Error

Tables Icon

Table V Scattering Data for Methanol

Tables Icon

Table VI Scattering Data for Benzene

Tables Icon

Table VII Scattering Data for NBS Polystyrene in Toluene

Tables Icon

Table VIII Comparison of Measured and Published Rθ Values for Solvents

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R θ = J θ / ( I 0 V ) .
J = P / σ and
I = P / A ,
A θ = σ r 2 .
R θ = I θ r 2 / ( I 0 V ) .
R θ = J θ / I 0 V = ( P θ / σ ) / ( P 0 V ) / A 0 = P θ / ( P 0 σ l ) ,
G θ = P 0 R θ σ l S a T θ ,
G 0 = P 0 D 0 S a T 0 ,
R θ = G θ D 0 / ( G 0 σ l ) .
σ = 2 π S p ( cos θ i - cos θ i i ) .
σ = 2 π S p ( cos θ i - cos θ i i ) ,
sin θ = n sin θ .
l = ( G a / G b ) d x ,
l = n γ - k / ( 2 n γ ) + k / ( 2 n γ ) ( G a / G b ) d x ,
P θ = P 0 R θ σ l T θ .
K = 2 π 2 n 2 ( d n / d c ) 2 ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) / λ 4 N ,
R θ = R 90 iso ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) C ( θ ) ,
C ( θ ) = 1 + ρ + ( 1 - ρ ) cos 2 θ [ 1 - ( 7 / 6 ) ρ ] ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) ,
R 90 = R 0 ( 1 + ρ ) / 2 ,
R 90 = ( 2 π 2 k T β / λ 4 ) ( n / α ) 2 ( d n / d T ) 2 C ( 90 ) ,

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