Abstract

Calorimeters have been designed and constructed that can measure the energy content of picosecond 1.06-μm laser pulses ranging in energy from ~13 μJ to 200 J. Noise levels are approximately 55 dB below individual instruments’ upper limits. The thermopile output voltage peaks in less than 2 sec and recovers with a time constant of ~50 sec or less.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. G. Edwards, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 835 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Jennings, Precision Measurements and Calibration (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo., June, 1970), Vol. 4, p. 399–402 N70-39598. Also Vol. 7 (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., Nov.1971), p. 511–521 N72-18442. Other instruments are also described. See also Report N. B. S. -TN-382 (1969).
  3. J. G. Edwards, J. Phys. E 3, 452 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Schmidt, R. E. Greenhow, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 438 (1969), J. R. Wilson, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 215 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Gray, Ed., AIP Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Sec. 6, p. 103.
  6. George Joos, Theoretical Physics (G. E. Stechert, N.Y., 1934).
  7. J. F. Ready, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 462 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 42nd and 45th editions (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, 1960–61, 1964–65).
  9. Furane Plastics Ind., 4516 Brazil Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 90039.
  10. VCHD—vinylcyclohexene dioxide—Union Carbide resin ERL-4206 (use 58% by weight).
  11. HET (chlorendic annhydride) Durez Div. Hooker Chemical Co. (use 42% by weight).

1970 (1)

J. G. Edwards, J. Phys. E 3, 452 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. J. Schmidt, R. E. Greenhow, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 438 (1969), J. R. Wilson, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. G. Edwards, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 835 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. F. Ready, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 462 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, J. G.

J. G. Edwards, J. Phys. E 3, 452 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Edwards, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 835 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Greenhow, R. E.

A. J. Schmidt, R. E. Greenhow, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 438 (1969), J. R. Wilson, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. A.

D. A. Jennings, Precision Measurements and Calibration (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo., June, 1970), Vol. 4, p. 399–402 N70-39598. Also Vol. 7 (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., Nov.1971), p. 511–521 N72-18442. Other instruments are also described. See also Report N. B. S. -TN-382 (1969).

Joos, George

George Joos, Theoretical Physics (G. E. Stechert, N.Y., 1934).

Ready, J. F.

J. F. Ready, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 462 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A. J.

A. J. Schmidt, R. E. Greenhow, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 438 (1969), J. R. Wilson, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. F. Ready, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 462 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (2)

J. G. Edwards, J. Phys. E 3, 452 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Schmidt, R. E. Greenhow, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 438 (1969), J. R. Wilson, J. Phys. E 2, Ser. 2, 215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. G. Edwards, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 835 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

D. A. Jennings, Precision Measurements and Calibration (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo., June, 1970), Vol. 4, p. 399–402 N70-39598. Also Vol. 7 (U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., Nov.1971), p. 511–521 N72-18442. Other instruments are also described. See also Report N. B. S. -TN-382 (1969).

D. Gray, Ed., AIP Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Sec. 6, p. 103.

George Joos, Theoretical Physics (G. E. Stechert, N.Y., 1934).

R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 42nd and 45th editions (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, 1960–61, 1964–65).

Furane Plastics Ind., 4516 Brazil Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 90039.

VCHD—vinylcyclohexene dioxide—Union Carbide resin ERL-4206 (use 58% by weight).

HET (chlorendic annhydride) Durez Div. Hooker Chemical Co. (use 42% by weight).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified cross section of a calorimeter with 63-mm entrance diameter. A radiation-absorbing glass ring (1) absorbs a portion of the incident pulse, and the temperature change is observed by thermocouple hot junctions (2). Thermopile wires are the only support for the absorbing glass. Cold junctions (3) are supported on an insulating ring (6) inside the diffusely reflecting cavity walls (4), which provide thermal and electrical shielding in combination with outer shields not shown. An entrance window (5) reduces thermal noise due to air currents. An entrance tube (7) further reduces thermal noise by reducing temperature gradients in the window and reduces radiation loss.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of surface temperature at time t to the initial (t = 0) surface temperature vs the ratio t/tc, where tc is a characteristic time defined in the text. Initial temperature distribution in the medium is exponential.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Major components of a 63-mm aperture calorimeter. Thermopile hot junctions are cemented to the glass absorber and support it.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Styrofoam thermal shielding has been pulled back to show portions of a 63-mm calorimeter. An external aluminum cover provides protection and more electrical shielding.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters Used in, or Derived from, Calculations Discussed in the Text for Elements that may be Used as Radiation Absorbers or in Thermocouplesa

Tables Icon

Table II Some Dimensions and Performance Characteristics of Colorimeters that have been Constructeda

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

q ( y ) = q 0 exp ( - y / D ) ,
T ( 0 , t ) T ( 0 , 0 ) = 2 π 0 exp ( - z 2 t / t c ) z 2 + 1 d z ,
T ( 0 , t ) T ( 0 , 0 ) ( t c π t ) 1 / 2 for ( t / t c ) 10.
q 0 = Δ H [ T ( 0 , 0 ) ] = Δ H ( T B P ) ,
q 0 = Δ H fusion + 0 T B P C ( T ) d T .

Metrics