Abstract

This paper describes a simple electrooptic effect that can be achieved by placing a thin nematic liquid crystal layer between two glass prisms of appropriate refractive index. For a range of angles of incidence on the prism–liquid crystal interface, light is partially transmitted or totally reflected, depending upon the electric-field-controlled orientation of the optic axis in the nematic layer.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. For example, see G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968) and M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Gruler, G. Meier, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 16, 299 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Kashnow, H. S. Cole, Proc. of the Fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference (Kent, Ohio, 1972); Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., to be published.
  5. P. Chatelain, Bull. Soc. Franc. Mineral. Crystallogr. 66, 105 (1943).
  6. H. S. Cole, R. A. Kashnow, S. Aftergut, General Electric Report 72CRD313 (1972).
  7. F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 521.
  8. A detailed analysis of reflection and refraction at boundaries involving anisotropic media was given by G. Szivessy, in Handbuch der Physik, H. Geiger, K. Scheel, Eds. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1928), Vol. 20, p. 719et seq. and discussed by G. N. Ramachandran, S. Ramaseshan, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1961), Vol. 25, p. 110.
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1964).
  10. M. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, London, 1971).
  11. D. A. Balzarini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 914 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. G. de Gennes, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 7, 325 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Orsay Liquid Crystal Group, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1642 (1970).
  14. M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. J. Kahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 199 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. S. Cole, S. Aftergut, 1972Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. (Lewis Winner, New York).
  18. J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams, W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1024 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1972 (3)

H. Gruler, G. Meier, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 16, 299 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Kahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 199 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

Orsay Liquid Crystal Group, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1642 (1970).

D. A. Balzarini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 914 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

P. G. de Gennes, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 7, 325 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (3)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).
[CrossRef]

For example, see G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968) and M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams, W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1024 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

P. Chatelain, Bull. Soc. Franc. Mineral. Crystallogr. 66, 105 (1943).

Adams, J.

J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams, W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1024 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aftergut, S.

H. S. Cole, S. Aftergut, 1972Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. (Lewis Winner, New York).

H. S. Cole, R. A. Kashnow, S. Aftergut, General Electric Report 72CRD313 (1972).

Balzarini, D. A.

D. A. Balzarini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 914 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Barton, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1964).

Chatelain, P.

P. Chatelain, Bull. Soc. Franc. Mineral. Crystallogr. 66, 105 (1943).

Cole, H. S.

H. S. Cole, R. A. Kashnow, S. Aftergut, General Electric Report 72CRD313 (1972).

R. A. Kashnow, H. S. Cole, Proc. of the Fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference (Kent, Ohio, 1972); Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., to be published.

H. S. Cole, S. Aftergut, 1972Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. (Lewis Winner, New York).

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 7, 325 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fahrenschon, K.

M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Francon, M.

M. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, London, 1971).

Gruler, H.

H. Gruler, G. Meier, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 16, 299 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Haas, W.

J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams, W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1024 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Heilmeier, G. H.

For example, see G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968) and M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 521.

Kahn, F. J.

F. J. Kahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 199 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kashnow, R. A.

H. S. Cole, R. A. Kashnow, S. Aftergut, General Electric Report 72CRD313 (1972).

R. A. Kashnow, H. S. Cole, Proc. of the Fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference (Kent, Ohio, 1972); Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., to be published.

Mallick, S.

M. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, London, 1971).

Meier, G.

H. Gruler, G. Meier, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 16, 299 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rafuse, M. J.

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schiekel, M. F.

M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Szivessy, G.

A detailed analysis of reflection and refraction at boundaries involving anisotropic media was given by G. Szivessy, in Handbuch der Physik, H. Geiger, K. Scheel, Eds. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1928), Vol. 20, p. 719et seq. and discussed by G. N. Ramachandran, S. Ramaseshan, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1961), Vol. 25, p. 110.

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 521.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1964).

Wysocki, J. J.

J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams, W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1024 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, L. A.

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).
[CrossRef]

For example, see G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968) and M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

For example, see G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968) and M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Kahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 199 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Soc. Franc. Mineral. Crystallogr. (1)

P. Chatelain, Bull. Soc. Franc. Mineral. Crystallogr. 66, 105 (1943).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. A. Soref, M. J. Rafuse, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2029 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

P. G. de Gennes, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 7, 325 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Gruler, G. Meier, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 16, 299 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. A. Balzarini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 914 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Orsay Liquid Crystal Group, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1642 (1970).

J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams, W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1024 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni, L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. A. Kashnow, H. S. Cole, Proc. of the Fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference (Kent, Ohio, 1972); Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., to be published.

H. S. Cole, R. A. Kashnow, S. Aftergut, General Electric Report 72CRD313 (1972).

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 521.

A detailed analysis of reflection and refraction at boundaries involving anisotropic media was given by G. Szivessy, in Handbuch der Physik, H. Geiger, K. Scheel, Eds. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1928), Vol. 20, p. 719et seq. and discussed by G. N. Ramachandran, S. Ramaseshan, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1961), Vol. 25, p. 110.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1964).

M. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, London, 1971).

H. S. Cole, S. Aftergut, 1972Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers. (Lewis Winner, New York).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for studying field-controlled total reflection. The liquid crystal layer thickness is greatly exaggerated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of the nematic director (dashed lines) for the field-on condition in a nematic of positive dielectric anisotropy. A boundary transition region is shown with a thickness ξ that decreases with increasing field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of transmitted light (at detector position of Fig. 1) vs the angle of incidence θ on the first prism-liquid crystal interface: (a) electric field-off, optic axis parallel to x; (b) electric field-on, optic axis as shown in Fig. 2.

Equations (7)

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N sin θ = n sin θ ,
1 / n 2 = [ ( sin 2 θ ) / n o 2 ] + [ ( cos 2 θ ) / n e 2 ] ,
θ c = sin - 1 n 0 / N .
1 / n 2 = [ ( sin 2 θ ) / n e 2 ] + [ ( cos 2 θ ) / n o 2 ] ,
N sin θ = n o sin θ ,
tan α ( z ) / 2 = exp ( - z / ξ ) ,
ξ = a E - 1

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