Abstract

Luminance and radiance measuring instrumentations generally consist of an objective lens (or mirror system), a photodetector, and an optical system that defines both the viewing field and the measuring field of the instrument. In more versatile instruments, this optical system is generally required to define a multiplicity of different-size fields. This paper reviews existing methods—such as the beam splitter/reticle approach, the fiber light pipe approach, etc.—and explores several new systems. Comparative evaluation of the various systems is made using the criteria of efficiency, unambiguity of viewing field, alignment accuracy between viewing and measuring field, freedom from polarization, etc. The optimal system appears to be one that consists of a mirror disk fabricated with a multiplicity of elliptical apertures through it; the disk is oriented at an angle to the optical axis so that the photons being measured pass through the selected aperture, while the mirror surface reflects the balance of the incoming radiation to the observer’s eye for viewing. A new instrument that is based on this optimal system is briefly described.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1926), pp. 402–403.
  2. Illumination Engineering Society, IES Lighting Handbook (I.E.S., New York, 1966), pp. 4-4 to 4-7.
  3. For discussion of terms and units, see J. R. Meyer-Arendt, Appl. Opt. 7, 2081 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Ref. 1, p. 347.
  5. A. H. Taylor, Trans. Illum. Eng. Society (London) 32, 235 (1937).
  6. C. B. Neblette, Photography, Its Materials and Processes (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1962), p. 144.
  7. See, for example, Ref. 1, p. 155.
  8. Ref. 6, p. 145.
  9. Manufactured by Photo Research Division of Kollmorgen Corp., Burbank, California, 91505. The words Spectra, Pritchard photometer, Spectar, and Auto-Comp are trademarks of Photo Research.
  10. F. F. Crandell, K. Freund, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 61, 215 (1953).
  11. K. Freund, Illum. Eng. 48, 524 (1953).
  12. G. A. Horton, Illum. Eng. 60, 217 (1965).
  13. The late Ben Pritchard was associated with the Vision Research Laboratories at the University of Michigan and the University of Ohio.
  14. H. R. Luxenberg, R. L. Kuehn, Display Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 95.
  15. D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 396 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See any text on fiber optics; for example, W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 237.
  17. R. A. Walker, “Radiometric Techniques for Sensitometry,” Final Report on contract AF-33 (657) 8444, ASD-TDR-63-678; Houston Fearless Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. 90064 (December1963).
  18. The author has found photometric variations of 20–50% as being typical of current commercial zoom lenses.
  19. The design described herein is owned by the Photo Research Division of the Kollmorgen Corporation, is being protected by patents, and is not to be manufactured, sold, or used by others without the prior written consent of Photo Research.
  20. R. E. Levin, Discussion on Horton article (Ref. 12), p. 224.

1968

1965

G. A. Horton, Illum. Eng. 60, 217 (1965).

D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 396 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1953

F. F. Crandell, K. Freund, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 61, 215 (1953).

K. Freund, Illum. Eng. 48, 524 (1953).

1937

A. H. Taylor, Trans. Illum. Eng. Society (London) 32, 235 (1937).

Crandell, F. F.

F. F. Crandell, K. Freund, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 61, 215 (1953).

Freund, K.

F. F. Crandell, K. Freund, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 61, 215 (1953).

K. Freund, Illum. Eng. 48, 524 (1953).

Horton, G. A.

G. A. Horton, Illum. Eng. 60, 217 (1965).

Kuehn, R. L.

H. R. Luxenberg, R. L. Kuehn, Display Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 95.

Levin, R. E.

R. E. Levin, Discussion on Horton article (Ref. 12), p. 224.

Luxenberg, H. R.

H. R. Luxenberg, R. L. Kuehn, Display Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 95.

Meyer-Arendt, J. R.

Neblette, C. B.

C. B. Neblette, Photography, Its Materials and Processes (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1962), p. 144.

Smith, W. J.

See any text on fiber optics; for example, W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 237.

Spencer, D. E.

Taylor, A. H.

A. H. Taylor, Trans. Illum. Eng. Society (London) 32, 235 (1937).

Walker, R. A.

R. A. Walker, “Radiometric Techniques for Sensitometry,” Final Report on contract AF-33 (657) 8444, ASD-TDR-63-678; Houston Fearless Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. 90064 (December1963).

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1926), pp. 402–403.

Appl. Opt.

Illum. Eng.

K. Freund, Illum. Eng. 48, 524 (1953).

G. A. Horton, Illum. Eng. 60, 217 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng.

F. F. Crandell, K. Freund, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 61, 215 (1953).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Society (London)

A. H. Taylor, Trans. Illum. Eng. Society (London) 32, 235 (1937).

Other

C. B. Neblette, Photography, Its Materials and Processes (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1962), p. 144.

See, for example, Ref. 1, p. 155.

Ref. 6, p. 145.

Manufactured by Photo Research Division of Kollmorgen Corp., Burbank, California, 91505. The words Spectra, Pritchard photometer, Spectar, and Auto-Comp are trademarks of Photo Research.

Ref. 1, p. 347.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (Constable, London, 1926), pp. 402–403.

Illumination Engineering Society, IES Lighting Handbook (I.E.S., New York, 1966), pp. 4-4 to 4-7.

See any text on fiber optics; for example, W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 237.

R. A. Walker, “Radiometric Techniques for Sensitometry,” Final Report on contract AF-33 (657) 8444, ASD-TDR-63-678; Houston Fearless Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. 90064 (December1963).

The author has found photometric variations of 20–50% as being typical of current commercial zoom lenses.

The design described herein is owned by the Photo Research Division of the Kollmorgen Corporation, is being protected by patents, and is not to be manufactured, sold, or used by others without the prior written consent of Photo Research.

R. E. Levin, Discussion on Horton article (Ref. 12), p. 224.

The late Ben Pritchard was associated with the Vision Research Laboratories at the University of Michigan and the University of Ohio.

H. R. Luxenberg, R. L. Kuehn, Display Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 95.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic optical system of a generalized lens-and-aperture luminance/radiance meter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The image-plane photodetector optical system. The viewfinder—not shown in this series—may consist of a simple erecting eyepiece.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The beam splitter/reticle system, as used in the Spectra brightness spot meter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The Pritchard aperture mirror system, as used in the Spectra Pritchard photometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The simple fiber light pipe system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The fiber light pipe disk system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The pupil-sampling mirror and reticle system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The chopping mirror and reticle system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The geared aperture/reticle disk system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The dual sampler system.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The Pritchard aperture mirror disk system, shown with additional optical elements of the new Spectra Pritchard photometer.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The Spectra Pritchard photometer, model 1980

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Characteristics of Multiple-Field Optical Systems

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