Abstract

A great variety of compounds occur in nature or have been synthesized in the laboratory that crystallize with the apatite structure. We have investigated a number of the apatites and found them to be excellent laser hosts for neodymium and holmium. The apatites described in this paper were grown using the Czochralski method, have low optical losses in the pump and emission spectral regions for neodymium and holmium, and the hosts have been developed to readily accept large concentrations of doping ions. This paper describes the crystal growth, physical properties, spectroscopy, and laser performance of this family of new laser materials.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, R. Mazelsky, Appl. Opt. 7, 905 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins et al., Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-69-184, Air Force Materials Lab., Dayton, Ohio (1969).
  3. R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. H. Hopkins, J. Crystal Growth 6, 91 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Palace, H. Berman, C. Frondel, Dana’s System of Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Vol. 2, p. 877.
  6. A. G. Cockbain, G. V. Smith, Min. Mag. 36, 411 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Ito, Am. Mineralogist 53, 890 (1968).
  8. S. Naray-Szabo, Z. Kristallogr. 75, 389 (1930).
  9. A. A. Kaplyanskii, E. G. Kuzminov, Opt. Spectrosc. 29, 376 (1970).
  10. D. M. Daraseliva, G. V. Maksimova, A. A. Manenkov, JETP Lett. 10, 229 (1969).
  11. P. D. Johnson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 77 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Mazelsky, R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 68 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, J. Crystal Growth 314, 260 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. S. Duncan, R. H. Hopkins, R. Mazelsky, J. Crystal Growth 11, 50 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. M. McManus, R. H. Hopkins, W. J. Takei, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 180 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. D. Eaglet, L. G. DeShazer, G. A. Keig, D. E. Witter, paper 17-2 presented at the 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Kyoto, Japan (1970).
  19. W. D. Partlow, Westinghouse Research Laboratories, private communication.
  20. J. L. Wentz, Proc. IRE 52, 716 (1964) and U.S. Pat.3,429,636 (1969).
  21. N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, paper 17-7 presented at 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conference, Kyoto, Japan, (1970).
  22. L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 127 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 200 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Birnbaun, Optical Masers (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 10.
  25. W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 1103.
  26. A. M. Samson, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 5, 718 (1966).
  27. R. Bellman, G. Birnbaum, W. G. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 780 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  28. Ref. 24, p. 13.
  29. Ref. 24, p. 12.
  30. W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, April (1971).
  31. R. K. Watts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 124 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  32. B. C. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 206, 210.
  33. R. Landenberg, Z. Phys. 4, 451 (1921); W. B. Fowler, D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 128, 215 (1962); D. F. Nelson, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 137, A1117 (1965).
    [Crossref]

1971 (6)

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
[Crossref]

C. S. Duncan, R. H. Hopkins, R. Mazelsky, J. Crystal Growth 11, 50 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, April (1971).

R. K. Watts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 124 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

A. A. Kaplyanskii, E. G. Kuzminov, Opt. Spectrosc. 29, 376 (1970).

1969 (3)

D. M. Daraseliva, G. V. Maksimova, A. A. Manenkov, JETP Lett. 10, 229 (1969).

G. M. McManus, R. H. Hopkins, W. J. Takei, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 180 (1969).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, J. Crystal Growth 6, 91 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (5)

A. G. Cockbain, G. V. Smith, Min. Mag. 36, 411 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Ito, Am. Mineralogist 53, 890 (1968).

R. Mazelsky, R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 68 (1968).
[Crossref]

R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, J. Crystal Growth 314, 260 (1968).
[Crossref]

R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, R. Mazelsky, Appl. Opt. 7, 905 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

P. D. Johnson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 77 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (2)

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 200 (1966).
[Crossref]

A. M. Samson, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 5, 718 (1966).

1965 (1)

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 127 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. L. Wentz, Proc. IRE 52, 716 (1964) and U.S. Pat.3,429,636 (1969).

1963 (1)

R. Bellman, G. Birnbaum, W. G. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 780 (1963).
[Crossref]

1930 (1)

S. Naray-Szabo, Z. Kristallogr. 75, 389 (1930).

1921 (1)

R. Landenberg, Z. Phys. 4, 451 (1921); W. B. Fowler, D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 128, 215 (1962); D. F. Nelson, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 137, A1117 (1965).
[Crossref]

Bellman, R.

R. Bellman, G. Birnbaum, W. G. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 780 (1963).
[Crossref]

Berman, H.

C. Palace, H. Berman, C. Frondel, Dana’s System of Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Vol. 2, p. 877.

Birnbaum, G.

R. Bellman, G. Birnbaum, W. G. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 780 (1963).
[Crossref]

Birnbaun, G.

G. Birnbaun, Optical Masers (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 10.

Cockbain, A. G.

A. G. Cockbain, G. V. Smith, Min. Mag. 36, 411 (1968).
[Crossref]

Congleton, R. S.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 1103.

Damon, D. H.

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

Daraseliva, D. M.

D. M. Daraseliva, G. V. Maksimova, A. A. Manenkov, JETP Lett. 10, 229 (1969).

DeShazer, L. G.

R. D. Eaglet, L. G. DeShazer, G. A. Keig, D. E. Witter, paper 17-2 presented at the 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Kyoto, Japan (1970).

Dobratz, B. E.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 1103.

Duncan, C. S.

C. S. Duncan, R. H. Hopkins, R. Mazelsky, J. Crystal Growth 11, 50 (1971).
[Crossref]

Eaglet, R. D.

R. D. Eaglet, L. G. DeShazer, G. A. Keig, D. E. Witter, paper 17-2 presented at the 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Kyoto, Japan (1970).

Frondel, C.

C. Palace, H. Berman, C. Frondel, Dana’s System of Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Vol. 2, p. 877.

Geusic, G. E.

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 200 (1966).
[Crossref]

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 127 (1965).
[Crossref]

Henningsen, T.

R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, R. H.

R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

C. S. Duncan, R. H. Hopkins, R. Mazelsky, J. Crystal Growth 11, 50 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. M. McManus, R. H. Hopkins, W. J. Takei, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 180 (1969).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, J. Crystal Growth 6, 91 (1969).
[Crossref]

R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, J. Crystal Growth 314, 260 (1968).
[Crossref]

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins et al., Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-69-184, Air Force Materials Lab., Dayton, Ohio (1969).

Ito, J.

J. Ito, Am. Mineralogist 53, 890 (1968).

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 200 (1966).
[Crossref]

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 127 (1965).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. D.

P. D. Johnson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 77 (1967).
[Crossref]

Kaplyanskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, E. G. Kuzminov, Opt. Spectrosc. 29, 376 (1970).

Keig, G. A.

R. D. Eaglet, L. G. DeShazer, G. A. Keig, D. E. Witter, paper 17-2 presented at the 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Kyoto, Japan (1970).

Kramer, W. E.

R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, J. Crystal Growth 314, 260 (1968).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, April (1971).

Kuzminov, E. G.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, E. G. Kuzminov, Opt. Spectrosc. 29, 376 (1970).

Landenberg, R.

R. Landenberg, Z. Phys. 4, 451 (1921); W. B. Fowler, D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 128, 215 (1962); D. F. Nelson, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 137, A1117 (1965).
[Crossref]

Maksimova, G. V.

D. M. Daraseliva, G. V. Maksimova, A. A. Manenkov, JETP Lett. 10, 229 (1969).

Manenkov, A. A.

D. M. Daraseliva, G. V. Maksimova, A. A. Manenkov, JETP Lett. 10, 229 (1969).

Mazelsky, R.

C. S. Duncan, R. H. Hopkins, R. Mazelsky, J. Crystal Growth 11, 50 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, R. Mazelsky, Appl. Opt. 7, 905 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, J. Crystal Growth 314, 260 (1968).
[Crossref]

R. Mazelsky, R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 68 (1968).
[Crossref]

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins et al., Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-69-184, Air Force Materials Lab., Dayton, Ohio (1969).

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, paper 17-7 presented at 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conference, Kyoto, Japan, (1970).

McManus, G. M.

G. M. McManus, R. H. Hopkins, W. J. Takei, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 180 (1969).
[Crossref]

Melamed, N. T.

R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
[Crossref]

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins et al., Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-69-184, Air Force Materials Lab., Dayton, Ohio (1969).

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, paper 17-7 presented at 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conference, Kyoto, Japan, (1970).

Naray-Szabo, S.

S. Naray-Szabo, Z. Kristallogr. 75, 389 (1930).

Ng, W. K.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 1103.

Ohlmann, R. C.

R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, R. Mazelsky, Appl. Opt. 7, 905 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mazelsky, R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 68 (1968).
[Crossref]

Palace, C.

C. Palace, H. Berman, C. Frondel, Dana’s System of Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Vol. 2, p. 877.

Partlow, W. D.

R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. D. Partlow, Westinghouse Research Laboratories, private communication.

Piotrowski, P.

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

Roland, G. W.

R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
[Crossref]

Samson, A. M.

A. M. Samson, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 5, 718 (1966).

Smith, G. V.

A. G. Cockbain, G. V. Smith, Min. Mag. 36, 411 (1968).
[Crossref]

Sooy, W. R.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 1103.

Steinbruegge, K. B.

R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. Mazelsky, R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 68 (1968).
[Crossref]

R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, R. Mazelsky, Appl. Opt. 7, 905 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takei, W. J.

G. M. McManus, R. H. Hopkins, W. J. Takei, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 180 (1969).
[Crossref]

Uphoff, J. H.

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

van Uitert, L. G.

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 200 (1966).
[Crossref]

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 127 (1965).
[Crossref]

Wagner, W. G.

R. Bellman, G. Birnbaum, W. G. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 780 (1963).
[Crossref]

Walker, M. S.

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

Watts, R. K.

Wentz, J. L.

J. L. Wentz, Proc. IRE 52, 716 (1964) and U.S. Pat.3,429,636 (1969).

Witter, D. E.

R. D. Eaglet, L. G. DeShazer, G. A. Keig, D. E. Witter, paper 17-2 presented at the 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Kyoto, Japan (1970).

Wybourne, B. C.

B. C. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 206, 210.

Am. Mineralogist (1)

J. Ito, Am. Mineralogist 53, 890 (1968).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 127 (1965).
[Crossref]

L. F. Johnson, G. E. Geusic, L. G. van Uitert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 200 (1966).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, April (1971).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. Bellman, G. Birnbaum, W. G. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 780 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, D. H. Damon, P. Piotrowski, M. S. Walker, J. H. Uphoff, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 272 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. M. McManus, R. H. Hopkins, W. J. Takei, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 180 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Crystal Growth (4)

R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins, W. E. Kramer, J. Crystal Growth 314, 260 (1968).
[Crossref]

C. S. Duncan, R. H. Hopkins, R. Mazelsky, J. Crystal Growth 11, 50 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, N. T. Melamed, T. Henningsen, G. W. Roland, J. Crystal Growth 10, 218 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, J. Crystal Growth 6, 91 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (3)

R. Mazelsky, R. C. Ohlmann, K. B. Steinbruegge, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 68 (1968).
[Crossref]

P. D. Johnson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 77 (1967).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hopkins, G. W. Roland, K. B. Steinbruegge, W. D. Partlow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 637 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

D. M. Daraseliva, G. V. Maksimova, A. A. Manenkov, JETP Lett. 10, 229 (1969).

Min. Mag. (1)

A. G. Cockbain, G. V. Smith, Min. Mag. 36, 411 (1968).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. A. Kaplyanskii, E. G. Kuzminov, Opt. Spectrosc. 29, 376 (1970).

Proc. IRE (1)

J. L. Wentz, Proc. IRE 52, 716 (1964) and U.S. Pat.3,429,636 (1969).

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

S. Naray-Szabo, Z. Kristallogr. 75, 389 (1930).

Z. Phys. (1)

R. Landenberg, Z. Phys. 4, 451 (1921); W. B. Fowler, D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 128, 215 (1962); D. F. Nelson, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 137, A1117 (1965).
[Crossref]

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (1)

A. M. Samson, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 5, 718 (1966).

Other (10)

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, paper 17-7 presented at 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conference, Kyoto, Japan, (1970).

G. Birnbaun, Optical Masers (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 10.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, pp. 1103.

B. C. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 206, 210.

Ref. 24, p. 13.

Ref. 24, p. 12.

C. Palace, H. Berman, C. Frondel, Dana’s System of Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1951), Vol. 2, p. 877.

N. T. Melamed, R. Mazelsky, R. H. Hopkins et al., Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-69-184, Air Force Materials Lab., Dayton, Ohio (1969).

R. D. Eaglet, L. G. DeShazer, G. A. Keig, D. E. Witter, paper 17-2 presented at the 6th Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Kyoto, Japan (1970).

W. D. Partlow, Westinghouse Research Laboratories, private communication.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fizeau interferogram of c-axis 6.3 mm diam × 76 mm long Ca10(PO4)6F2:Nd rod. Photo courtesy of R. L. Remski, Air Force Avionics Laboratory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dislocation etch pits on section of Ca10(PO4)6F2:Nd cut normal to [ 10 1 ¯ 0 ] growth axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectrum of Ca2La7.8Nd0.2(SiO4)6O2 at 300 K (0.825-μm excitation).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation spectrum of the 1.061-μm line from Ca2La7.8Nd0.2(SiO4)6O2 at 300 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Portion of excitation spectrum of the 1.061-μm line from Ca2La7.8Nd0.2(SiO4)6O2 at 77 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Part of the 4 F 3 2 4 I 9 2 fluorescence spectrum of Ca2La7.998Nd0.002(SiO4)6O2 at 77 K. Excitation at (a) 0.8780 μm, (b) 0.8740 μm, and (c) 0.8830 μm (excitation resolution: 2 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Abbreviated energy level diagram of Nd+3 in Ca2La8(SiO4)4O2 at 77 K. The transitions shown are observed at both 77 K and 300 K. Only the ground doublet of the split 4 I 9 2 level of Nd+3 at each type of site is shown. Only one level of the split 4 I 1 1 2 and 4 I 1 3 2 levels at Type AII sites is included. The three pairs of 4 F 3 2 doublets for Nd+3 at the three different sites are shown. The laser transition is indicated by a heavy arrow.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluorescence spectra of Ho+3 in each of three hosts at 77 K: (a) Ca10(PO4)6F2:Ho,Cr, (b) Ca2Y8(SiO4)6O2:Ho,Er,Tm, and (c) YAG:Ho,Er,Tm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical density vs wavelength for a lightly doped Ca10(PO4)6F2:Ho,Cr sample at 77 K with light propagating along a axis. Sharp lines are due to Ho.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Excitation spectra of Ho+3 in each of three hosts at 77 K: (a) Ca10(PO4)6F2:Ho, Cr, (b) Ca2Y8(SiO4)6O2:Ho,Er,Tm, and (c)YAG:Ho,Er,Tm.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Physical Properties of Some Apatite Laser Hosts

Tables Icon

Table II Fluorescence Properties of Nd+3 in Apatite Hosts

Tables Icon

Table III Long-Pulse Laser Tests of Neodymium-Doped Apatite Lasers

Tables Icon

Table IV Q-Switched Laser Tests of Neodymium-Doped Apatite Lasers

Tables Icon

Table V Spectroscopic Properties of Ho+3 in Ca10(PO4)6F2, Ca2Y8(SiO4)6O2, and YAG

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ = ( h ν Δ N m ) s / ( h ν Δ N m ) y ,
( e α l ) y = ( e α l ) s ,
α = A Δ N / p υ ,
γ = ( ν p υ τ ) s / ( ν p υ τ ) y .
γ = λ y 5 n y 2 τ s Δ λ s / λ s 5 n s 2 τ y Δ λ y ,
γ τ s Δ λ s / τ y Δ λ y ,
1 / τ s t = ( Q . E . ) A e / τ s o A o η ,
1 / τ s t = 2 / 3 τ s + 1 / 3 τ s ,

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