Abstract

Thermal blooming of laser beams in liquids and gases has been studied using geometrical optics. The intensity profiles, light rays, and fluid density changes are determined as functions of time and of the initial beam profile. Short and long time behavior are derived. The effects of thermal conduction and viscosity. are included. Special beam profiles such as a uniformly illuminated aperture, a parabolic profile, and a Gaussian beam are treated. The on-axis beam intensity as given by the theory is compared to the data proved by Kenemuth et al. and is shown to fit within the experimental error.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 141 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. H. Rieckhoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 87 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Carman, P. Kelley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 241 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Kenemuth, C. B. Hogge, P. Avizonis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 220 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Sica, E. McLean, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 7, 3177 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Livingston, Appl. Opt. 10, 426 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. C. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE5, 6000 (1969).
  10. F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 52 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wallace, M. Camac, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1587 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kleiman, R. W. O’Neil, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 12 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. A. Aleshkevich, A. P. Sukhorukhov, ZhETF Pis. Red. 12, 112 (1970) [JETP Lett. 12, 77 (1970)].
  14. L. C. Bradley, J. Herrman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 668 (1971); see also Project Report LTP-10, Numerical calculation of Light Propagation.
  15. A. H. Aitken, J. N. Hayes, P. B. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 674(1971); see also Appl. Opt., 11, 257 (1972); NRL Report 7293, June1971.
  16. A. Wood, M. Comac, E. Gerry, Avco Everett Research Laboratory Report 350 (June1970).
  17. A. D. Wheelon, Table of Summable Series and Integrals Involving Bessel Functions, (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1968).

1971

L. C. Bradley, J. Herrman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 668 (1971); see also Project Report LTP-10, Numerical calculation of Light Propagation.

A. H. Aitken, J. N. Hayes, P. B. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 674(1971); see also Appl. Opt., 11, 257 (1972); NRL Report 7293, June1971.

P. M. Livingston, Appl. Opt. 10, 426 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kleiman, R. W. O’Neil, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 12 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

V. A. Aleshkevich, A. P. Sukhorukhov, ZhETF Pis. Red. 12, 112 (1970) [JETP Lett. 12, 77 (1970)].

J. Wallace, M. Camac, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Kenemuth, C. B. Hogge, P. Avizonis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. Sica, E. McLean, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 7, 3177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. C. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE5, 6000 (1969).

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 52 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rieckhoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. Carman, P. Kelley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 241 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, A. H.

A. H. Aitken, J. N. Hayes, P. B. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 674(1971); see also Appl. Opt., 11, 257 (1972); NRL Report 7293, June1971.

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aleshkevich, V. A.

V. A. Aleshkevich, A. P. Sukhorukhov, ZhETF Pis. Red. 12, 112 (1970) [JETP Lett. 12, 77 (1970)].

Avizonis, P.

J. R. Kenemuth, C. B. Hogge, P. Avizonis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, L. C.

L. C. Bradley, J. Herrman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 668 (1971); see also Project Report LTP-10, Numerical calculation of Light Propagation.

Camac, M.

Carman, R.

R. Carman, P. Kelley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 241 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Comac, M.

A. Wood, M. Comac, E. Gerry, Avco Everett Research Laboratory Report 350 (June1970).

Gebhardt, F. G.

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 52 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gerry, E.

A. Wood, M. Comac, E. Gerry, Avco Everett Research Laboratory Report 350 (June1970).

Gordon, J. H.

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. N.

A. H. Aitken, J. N. Hayes, P. B. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 674(1971); see also Appl. Opt., 11, 257 (1972); NRL Report 7293, June1971.

Herrman, J.

L. C. Bradley, J. Herrman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 668 (1971); see also Project Report LTP-10, Numerical calculation of Light Propagation.

Hogge, C. B.

J. R. Kenemuth, C. B. Hogge, P. Avizonis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P.

R. Carman, P. Kelley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 241 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kenemuth, J. R.

J. R. Kenemuth, C. B. Hogge, P. Avizonis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Khukhlov, R. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kleiman, H.

Krindach, D. P.

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Leite, R. C. C.

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, P. M.

McLean, E.

L. Sica, E. McLean, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 7, 3177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Migulin, A. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. S.

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

O’Neil, R. W.

Porto, S.

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Rieckhoff, K. H.

K. H. Rieckhoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sica, L.

L. Sica, E. McLean, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 7, 3177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. C.

D. C. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE5, 6000 (1969).

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 52 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukhov, A. P.

V. A. Aleshkevich, A. P. Sukhorukhov, ZhETF Pis. Red. 12, 112 (1970) [JETP Lett. 12, 77 (1970)].

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, P. B.

A. H. Aitken, J. N. Hayes, P. B. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 674(1971); see also Appl. Opt., 11, 257 (1972); NRL Report 7293, June1971.

Wallace, J.

Wheelon, A. D.

A. D. Wheelon, Table of Summable Series and Integrals Involving Bessel Functions, (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1968).

Whinnery, J. R.

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wood, A.

A. Wood, M. Comac, E. Gerry, Avco Everett Research Laboratory Report 350 (June1970).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rieckhoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. Carman, P. Kelley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 241 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Kenemuth, C. B. Hogge, P. Avizonis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 52 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

D. C. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE5, 6000 (1969).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. A. Akhmanov, D. P. Krindach, A. V. Migulin, A. P. Sukhorukhov, R. V. Khukhlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE4, 568 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. H. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. Porto, J. R. Whinnery, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. Sica, E. McLean, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 7, 3177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Wallace, M. Camac, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Kleiman, R. W. O’Neil, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 12 (1971).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Bradley, J. Herrman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 668 (1971); see also Project Report LTP-10, Numerical calculation of Light Propagation.

A. H. Aitken, J. N. Hayes, P. B. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 674(1971); see also Appl. Opt., 11, 257 (1972); NRL Report 7293, June1971.

ZhETF Pis. Red.

V. A. Aleshkevich, A. P. Sukhorukhov, ZhETF Pis. Red. 12, 112 (1970) [JETP Lett. 12, 77 (1970)].

Other

A. Wood, M. Comac, E. Gerry, Avco Everett Research Laboratory Report 350 (June1970).

A. D. Wheelon, Table of Summable Series and Integrals Involving Bessel Functions, (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1968).

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