Abstract

Light-guiding thin films of various materials have been deposited on glass substrates from liquid solutions by slow evaporation of the solvent. The attenuation of the guided light wave in some of these films is as low as that in the best films prepared by other methods. Film deposition from solution is done at or near room temperature. Therefore, this technique allows us to dope the thin films with organic molecules, e.g., laser dyes. The preparation and light-guiding properties of the doped and undoped films are described. The materials studied were epoxy, lead-silica, polyurethane, and Kodak photoresist KPR. Films of the first and second material have shown losses as low as 0.3 dB/cm at wavelengths of 0.633 μm and 1.064 μm, respectively. Films of polyurethane have been prepared with rhodamine 6G doping. When pumped with a pulsed nitrogen laser, the doped films showed optical gains of up to 100 dB/cm. The KPR films have an attenuation of ~1 dB/cm at 1.064 μm. This low optical loss, in combination with the photographic sensitivity of the KPR, offers the possibility of fabricating integrated optical circuits directly in the photoresist films.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).
  2. R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Opt. 10, 2077 (1971); R. Shubert, J. H. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 154 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Hall, A. Yariv, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 127 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 38 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).
  9. E. R. Schineller, R. P. Flam, D. W. Wilmot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1171 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, J. N. Polky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1007 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. A. J. Marcatili, Bull. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).
  12. Epoxylite Corp., 1428 Tyler Ave., South El Monte, Calif. 91723, Technical Bulletin 9653 (April1969).
  13. Midland Division of the Dexter Corp., Hayward, Calif. 94544.
  14. CIBA Products Co., Division of CIBA Corp., Summit, N.J.
  15. Emulsitone Co., P. O. Box 99, Livingstone, N.J., 07039.
  16. Eastman-Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 14650, Kodak Pamphlet P-81 (1966).
  17. H. Schroeder, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 5, p. 87.
  18. D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Jacques, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 556 (1971). This paper came to our attention after completion of the present manuscript. The authors used Shipley AZ 1350 photoresist. We did not investigate this material further despite its reportedly better resolution, because we found its attenuation at λ = 0.633 μm to be high (of the order of 500 dB/cm). At λ = 1.06 μm, however, the attenuation is only ~1.6 dB/cm.
    [CrossRef]
  19. American St. Gobain Glass, supplied by J. M. Freed Co., Perkasie, Pa. 18944.
  20. G. F. Damon, 1966 Kodak-Seminar on Microminiaturization, Kodak Publication P-195, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. 14650; and others in the same series.
  21. M. Hess, Paint Film Defects, (Reinhold, New York, 1951).
  22. W. Geffken, H. Schröder, German Patent906426 (15March1954).
  23. B. B. Snavely, Proceed. IMEE 57, 1374 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, W. T. Silvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 307 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, T. Li, Electronics 43, 60 (1970).
  27. E. A. Chandross, BTL; private communication.
  28. E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE7, 178 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. P. Kaminow, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1971 (6)

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 38 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Jacques, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 556 (1971). This paper came to our attention after completion of the present manuscript. The authors used Shipley AZ 1350 photoresist. We did not investigate this material further despite its reportedly better resolution, because we found its attenuation at λ = 0.633 μm to be high (of the order of 500 dB/cm). At λ = 1.06 μm, however, the attenuation is only ~1.6 dB/cm.
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE7, 178 (1971).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Opt. 10, 2077 (1971); R. Shubert, J. H. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 154 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (6)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, T. Li, Electronics 43, 60 (1970).

C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, W. T. Silvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 307 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, J. N. Polky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1007 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Hall, A. Yariv, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (5)

B. B. Snavely, Proceed. IMEE 57, 1374 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bull. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

1968 (1)

Chandross, E. A.

I. P. Kaminow, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Chandross, BTL; private communication.

Dakss, M. L.

L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Damon, G. F.

G. F. Damon, 1966 Kodak-Seminar on Microminiaturization, Kodak Publication P-195, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. 14650; and others in the same series.

Dienes, A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE7, 178 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, W. T. Silvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 307 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Flam, R. P.

Garmire, E.

D. Hall, A. Yariv, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Geffken, W.

W. Geffken, H. Schröder, German Patent906426 (15March1954).

Goell, J. E.

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, T. Li, Electronics 43, 60 (1970).

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

Hall, D.

D. Hall, A. Yariv, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. H.

Heidrich, P. F.

L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hess, M.

M. Hess, Paint Film Defects, (Reinhold, New York, 1951).

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE7, 178 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, A.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Jacques, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 556 (1971). This paper came to our attention after completion of the present manuscript. The authors used Shipley AZ 1350 photoresist. We did not investigate this material further despite its reportedly better resolution, because we found its attenuation at λ = 0.633 μm to be high (of the order of 500 dB/cm). At λ = 1.06 μm, however, the attenuation is only ~1.6 dB/cm.
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, L.

L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Leheny, R. F.

K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, T. Li, Electronics 43, 60 (1970).

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bull. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Martin, R. J.

R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Opt. 10, 2077 (1971); R. Shubert, J. H. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 154 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

Ostrowsky, D. B.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Jacques, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 556 (1971). This paper came to our attention after completion of the present manuscript. The authors used Shipley AZ 1350 photoresist. We did not investigate this material further despite its reportedly better resolution, because we found its attenuation at λ = 0.633 μm to be high (of the order of 500 dB/cm). At λ = 1.06 μm, however, the attenuation is only ~1.6 dB/cm.
[CrossRef]

Polky, J. N.

Schineller, E. R.

Schröder, H.

W. Geffken, H. Schröder, German Patent906426 (15March1954).

Schroeder, H.

H. Schroeder, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 5, p. 87.

Scott, B. A.

L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shaklee, K. L.

K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE7, 178 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, W. T. Silvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 307 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shubert, R.

Silvast, W. T.

C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, W. T. Silvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 307 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Snavely, B. B.

B. B. Snavely, Proceed. IMEE 57, 1374 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, T. Li, Electronics 43, 60 (1970).

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Opt. 10, 2077 (1971); R. Shubert, J. H. Harris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 154 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 38 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

I. P. Kaminow, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 38 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wilmot, D. W.

Yariv, A.

D. Hall, A. Yariv, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, W. T. Silvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 307 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Jacques, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 556 (1971). This paper came to our attention after completion of the present manuscript. The authors used Shipley AZ 1350 photoresist. We did not investigate this material further despite its reportedly better resolution, because we found its attenuation at λ = 0.633 μm to be high (of the order of 500 dB/cm). At λ = 1.06 μm, however, the attenuation is only ~1.6 dB/cm.
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, H. P. Weber, E. A. Chandross, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971).
[CrossRef]

L. Kuhn, M. L. Dakss, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Hall, A. Yariv, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 38 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3445 (1969).

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2059 (1969).

Bull. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bull. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Electronics (1)

J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, T. Li, Electronics 43, 60 (1970).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Dienes, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE7, 178 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Proceed. IMEE (1)

B. B. Snavely, Proceed. IMEE 57, 1374 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

E. A. Chandross, BTL; private communication.

Epoxylite Corp., 1428 Tyler Ave., South El Monte, Calif. 91723, Technical Bulletin 9653 (April1969).

Midland Division of the Dexter Corp., Hayward, Calif. 94544.

CIBA Products Co., Division of CIBA Corp., Summit, N.J.

Emulsitone Co., P. O. Box 99, Livingstone, N.J., 07039.

Eastman-Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 14650, Kodak Pamphlet P-81 (1966).

H. Schroeder, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 5, p. 87.

American St. Gobain Glass, supplied by J. M. Freed Co., Perkasie, Pa. 18944.

G. F. Damon, 1966 Kodak-Seminar on Microminiaturization, Kodak Publication P-195, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. 14650; and others in the same series.

M. Hess, Paint Film Defects, (Reinhold, New York, 1951).

W. Geffken, H. Schröder, German Patent906426 (15March1954).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Superradiant light emission in a light-guiding polyurethane film doped with 0.02 mol./liter of rhodamine 6G. The bright line in the center (length 6.5 mm) is the yellow fluorescent light emitted spontaneously from the pumped region of the film. The streaks of super-radiant light guided in the film extend both ends of the pumped line. They appear orange. Exposure times of (a), (b), (c) are 1 sec, 10 see, 100 see, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical gain in polyurethane films doped with various concentrations of rhodamine 6G. The films were pumped with light (λ = 3371 Å; 1.5 MW/cm2) of a pulsed nitrogen laser.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Properties of Thin Films

Metrics