Abstract

A brief account is given of the work in the Kodak Research Laboratories on spectral sensitization that contributed to the manufacture of a diverse array of photographic plates and films for scientific use. For the most part it is concerned with plates supplied for spectroscopy and astronomy from 1930 to 1950, years of growth in these branches of science and years when plates with different spectral sensitizations appeared in increasing number.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. H. James, Phot. Sci. Eng. 4, 313 (1960).
  2. C. E. K. Mees, From Dry Plates to Ektachrome Film (Ziff Davis, New York, 1961), p. 269.
  3. W. H. Mills, F. M. Hamer, J. Chem. Soc. 117, 1035 (1920).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Bloch, F. M. Hamer, Photogr. J. 68, 21 (1928).
  5. C. E. K. Mees, S. H. Wratten, Brit. J. Photogr. 54, 172 (1907).
  6. L. A. Jones, O. Sandvik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 401 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. E. Jelley, Nature 138, 1009 (1936); Nature 139, 631 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49, 563 (1936); Angew. Chem. 50, 51, 212 (1937).
  9. Ref. 2, p. 123.
  10. J. A. Leermakers, B. H. Carroll, C. J. Staud, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 878 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Spence, B. H. Carroll, J. Phys. Coll. Chem. 52, 1090 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), 3rd ed., p. 201.
  13. J. H. Webb, C. H. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 249 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Q. Adams, H. L. Haller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 42, 2661 (1920).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. T. Clarke, U.S. Patent1,804,674 (1931), assigned to Eastman Kodak Company.
  16. L. G. S. Brooker, F. M. Hamer, C. E. K. Mees, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 216 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Dieterle, O. R. Riester, Z. Wiss. Photogr. 36, 68, 141 (1937).
  18. D. W. Heseltine, U.S. Patents2,734,900 and 2,756,227 (1956), assigned to Eastman Kodak Company.
  19. C. E. K. Mees, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 753 (1931); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 204 (1932); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 229 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Kodak Plates and Films for Science and Industry (Kodak Publication P9, Rochester, 1967).

1960

T. H. James, Phot. Sci. Eng. 4, 313 (1960).

1948

J. Spence, B. H. Carroll, J. Phys. Coll. Chem. 52, 1090 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1938

1937

W. Dieterle, O. R. Riester, Z. Wiss. Photogr. 36, 68, 141 (1937).

J. A. Leermakers, B. H. Carroll, C. J. Staud, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 878 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1936

E. E. Jelley, Nature 138, 1009 (1936); Nature 139, 631 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Z. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49, 563 (1936); Angew. Chem. 50, 51, 212 (1937).

1933

1931

1928

O. Bloch, F. M. Hamer, Photogr. J. 68, 21 (1928).

1926

1920

W. H. Mills, F. M. Hamer, J. Chem. Soc. 117, 1035 (1920).
[CrossRef]

E. Q. Adams, H. L. Haller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 42, 2661 (1920).
[CrossRef]

1907

C. E. K. Mees, S. H. Wratten, Brit. J. Photogr. 54, 172 (1907).

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams, H. L. Haller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 42, 2661 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, O.

O. Bloch, F. M. Hamer, Photogr. J. 68, 21 (1928).

Brooker, L. G. S.

Carroll, B. H.

J. Spence, B. H. Carroll, J. Phys. Coll. Chem. 52, 1090 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Leermakers, B. H. Carroll, C. J. Staud, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 878 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, H. T.

H. T. Clarke, U.S. Patent1,804,674 (1931), assigned to Eastman Kodak Company.

Dieterle, W.

W. Dieterle, O. R. Riester, Z. Wiss. Photogr. 36, 68, 141 (1937).

Evans, C. H.

Haller, H. L.

E. Q. Adams, H. L. Haller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 42, 2661 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Hamer, F. M.

L. G. S. Brooker, F. M. Hamer, C. E. K. Mees, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 216 (1933).
[CrossRef]

O. Bloch, F. M. Hamer, Photogr. J. 68, 21 (1928).

W. H. Mills, F. M. Hamer, J. Chem. Soc. 117, 1035 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Heseltine, D. W.

D. W. Heseltine, U.S. Patents2,734,900 and 2,756,227 (1956), assigned to Eastman Kodak Company.

James, T. H.

T. H. James, Phot. Sci. Eng. 4, 313 (1960).

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), 3rd ed., p. 201.

Jelley, E. E.

E. E. Jelley, Nature 138, 1009 (1936); Nature 139, 631 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L. A.

Leermakers, J. A.

J. A. Leermakers, B. H. Carroll, C. J. Staud, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 878 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Mees, C. E. K.

L. G. S. Brooker, F. M. Hamer, C. E. K. Mees, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 216 (1933).
[CrossRef]

C. E. K. Mees, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 753 (1931); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 204 (1932); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 229 (1933).
[CrossRef]

C. E. K. Mees, S. H. Wratten, Brit. J. Photogr. 54, 172 (1907).

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), 3rd ed., p. 201.

C. E. K. Mees, From Dry Plates to Ektachrome Film (Ziff Davis, New York, 1961), p. 269.

Mills, W. H.

W. H. Mills, F. M. Hamer, J. Chem. Soc. 117, 1035 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Riester, O. R.

W. Dieterle, O. R. Riester, Z. Wiss. Photogr. 36, 68, 141 (1937).

Sandvik, O.

Scheibe, Z.

Z. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49, 563 (1936); Angew. Chem. 50, 51, 212 (1937).

Spence, J.

J. Spence, B. H. Carroll, J. Phys. Coll. Chem. 52, 1090 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Staud, C. J.

J. A. Leermakers, B. H. Carroll, C. J. Staud, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 878 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Webb, J. H.

Wratten, S. H.

C. E. K. Mees, S. H. Wratten, Brit. J. Photogr. 54, 172 (1907).

Angew. Chem.

Z. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49, 563 (1936); Angew. Chem. 50, 51, 212 (1937).

Brit. J. Photogr.

C. E. K. Mees, S. H. Wratten, Brit. J. Photogr. 54, 172 (1907).

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

E. Q. Adams, H. L. Haller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 42, 2661 (1920).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. A. Leermakers, B. H. Carroll, C. J. Staud, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 878 (1937).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc.

W. H. Mills, F. M. Hamer, J. Chem. Soc. 117, 1035 (1920).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Coll. Chem.

J. Spence, B. H. Carroll, J. Phys. Coll. Chem. 52, 1090 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Nature

E. E. Jelley, Nature 138, 1009 (1936); Nature 139, 631 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Phot. Sci. Eng.

T. H. James, Phot. Sci. Eng. 4, 313 (1960).

Photogr. J.

O. Bloch, F. M. Hamer, Photogr. J. 68, 21 (1928).

Z. Wiss. Photogr.

W. Dieterle, O. R. Riester, Z. Wiss. Photogr. 36, 68, 141 (1937).

Other

D. W. Heseltine, U.S. Patents2,734,900 and 2,756,227 (1956), assigned to Eastman Kodak Company.

Kodak Plates and Films for Science and Industry (Kodak Publication P9, Rochester, 1967).

C. E. K. Mees, From Dry Plates to Ektachrome Film (Ziff Davis, New York, 1961), p. 269.

Ref. 2, p. 123.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), 3rd ed., p. 201.

H. T. Clarke, U.S. Patent1,804,674 (1931), assigned to Eastman Kodak Company.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pinacyanol iodide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thiacarbocyanine iodide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of a spectral sensitivity curve and a wedge spectrogram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Molecular arrangement of molecules in J aggregate of 2,2′-cyanine.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorbances and spectrograms of molecular band and of J band.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorbances and photographic sensitivities of dye (1) and of supersensitizing combination (2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral sensitivities available in 1951. Total extents of sensitivities shaded. Region for which class was especially valuable is shown in block.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Crab Nebula photographed with differently spectrally sensitized plates, courtesy Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitizing maxima of cyanines from benzothiazole of increasing chain length.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Structures of tetra- n = 0 and of penta- n = 1 thiacarbocyanines with isophorone residues in the chain.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral sensitivity curve of Kodak spectroscopic plate Type 103a-U.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Nebulosities in Andromeda Nebula, courtesy Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral sensitivity curve of Kodak spectroscopic plate Type 103a-E.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Spectral sensitivity curve of Kodak spectroscopic plate Type I-N.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Valley lights from Mt. Wilson on a Kodak Super Panchro-Press plate. (Courtesy Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories.)

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Valloy lights from Mt. Wilson on a Typo I-N plate. (Courtesy Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories.)

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spectral sensitivity curve of Kodak spectroscopic plate Type I-N.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Blue exposure of Rosette Nebula, courtesy Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Red exposure of Rosette Nebula, courtesy Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Photograph of sun taken through interference filter at 656.3 nm, 0.025-nm bandwidth on Kodak SO-392 film, courtesy Sacramento Peak Observatory (AFCRL).

Metrics