Abstract

Microphotography is defined as the production of photographs in which the image of the original object has been reduced to extremely small size, but its details are still reproduced with a high degree of clarity. The contributions of the Kodak Research Laboratories to this technology, which is now of considerable commercial importance, have been in the production of sensitized materials having suitable resolution and sensitometric characteristics These include both silver halide materials photoresists. Some of the history and characteristics of various products and processes are sketched briefly.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 90B, 149 (1950). See also A.F.C. Pollard, Brit. Soc. Int. Bibl. 5, 43 (1943).
  2. S. Bradbury, The Evolution of the Microscope (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967), Chap. 6.
  3. G. Shadbolt, Photogr. J. 4, 79 (1857).
  4. See, for example, the program of the topical meeting on The Uses of Optics in Microelectronics, sponsored by the Optical Society of America at Las Vegas, Nev., 25–27 Jan. 1971.
  5. E. Goldberg, Brit. J. Photogr. 73, 462 (1926).
  6. H. R. Verry, Microcopying Methods, revised by G. H. Wright (Focal Press, London and New York, 1967), p. 19.
  7. H. J. Fromm, S. C. Insalaco, Natl. Micro-News, No. 83, 3 (1966).
  8. G. Lippmann, Bull. Soc. Franc. Phot. 7 (Series II), 74 (1891).
  9. R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan, 1934, reprinted by Dover, New York, 1967), 3rd ed., p. 215.
  10. M. Hepher, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 181 (1964).
  11. L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Robertson, W. P. Van Deusen, L. M. Minsk, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 308 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  13. “Where the Action Is in Electronics,” special report, Business Week, Oct.4, 86 (1964).
  14. G. W. W. Stevens, Microphotography (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  15. J. H. Altman, H. C. Schmitt, in Proceedings of the 1968 Kodak Microminiaturization Seminar (Kodak publ. P-192-B), p. 12.
  16. D. F. Ilten, K. V. Patel, Image Technol. 13, 9 (Feb./March 1971).

1966

H. J. Fromm, S. C. Insalaco, Natl. Micro-News, No. 83, 3 (1966).

1964

M. Hepher, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 181 (1964).

1959

L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Robertson, W. P. Van Deusen, L. M. Minsk, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 308 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1950

G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 90B, 149 (1950). See also A.F.C. Pollard, Brit. Soc. Int. Bibl. 5, 43 (1943).

1926

E. Goldberg, Brit. J. Photogr. 73, 462 (1926).

1891

G. Lippmann, Bull. Soc. Franc. Phot. 7 (Series II), 74 (1891).

1857

G. Shadbolt, Photogr. J. 4, 79 (1857).

Altman, J. H.

J. H. Altman, H. C. Schmitt, in Proceedings of the 1968 Kodak Microminiaturization Seminar (Kodak publ. P-192-B), p. 12.

Bradbury, S.

S. Bradbury, The Evolution of the Microscope (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967), Chap. 6.

Fromm, H. J.

H. J. Fromm, S. C. Insalaco, Natl. Micro-News, No. 83, 3 (1966).

Goldberg, E.

E. Goldberg, Brit. J. Photogr. 73, 462 (1926).

Hepher, M.

M. Hepher, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 181 (1964).

Ilten, D. F.

D. F. Ilten, K. V. Patel, Image Technol. 13, 9 (Feb./March 1971).

Insalaco, S. C.

H. J. Fromm, S. C. Insalaco, Natl. Micro-News, No. 83, 3 (1966).

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, Bull. Soc. Franc. Phot. 7 (Series II), 74 (1891).

Minsk, L. M.

L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Robertson, W. P. Van Deusen, L. M. Minsk, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 308 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Patel, K. V.

D. F. Ilten, K. V. Patel, Image Technol. 13, 9 (Feb./March 1971).

Robertson, E. M.

E. M. Robertson, W. P. Van Deusen, L. M. Minsk, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 308 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, H. C.

J. H. Altman, H. C. Schmitt, in Proceedings of the 1968 Kodak Microminiaturization Seminar (Kodak publ. P-192-B), p. 12.

Shadbolt, G.

G. Shadbolt, Photogr. J. 4, 79 (1857).

Smith, J. G.

L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, G. W. W.

G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 90B, 149 (1950). See also A.F.C. Pollard, Brit. Soc. Int. Bibl. 5, 43 (1943).

G. W. W. Stevens, Microphotography (Wiley, New York, 1968).

Van Deusen, W. P.

E. M. Robertson, W. P. Van Deusen, L. M. Minsk, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 308 (1959).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Verry, H. R.

H. R. Verry, Microcopying Methods, revised by G. H. Wright (Focal Press, London and New York, 1967), p. 19.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan, 1934, reprinted by Dover, New York, 1967), 3rd ed., p. 215.

Wright, J. F.

L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Photogr.

E. Goldberg, Brit. J. Photogr. 73, 462 (1926).

Bull. Soc. Franc. Phot.

G. Lippmann, Bull. Soc. Franc. Phot. 7 (Series II), 74 (1891).

Image Technol.

D. F. Ilten, K. V. Patel, Image Technol. 13, 9 (Feb./March 1971).

J. Appl. Polymer Sci.

L. M. Minsk, J. G. Smith, W. P. Van Deusen, J. F. Wright, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 302 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Robertson, W. P. Van Deusen, L. M. Minsk, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 308 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Photogr. Sci.

M. Hepher, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 181 (1964).

Natl. Micro-News

H. J. Fromm, S. C. Insalaco, Natl. Micro-News, No. 83, 3 (1966).

Photogr. J.

G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 90B, 149 (1950). See also A.F.C. Pollard, Brit. Soc. Int. Bibl. 5, 43 (1943).

G. Shadbolt, Photogr. J. 4, 79 (1857).

Other

See, for example, the program of the topical meeting on The Uses of Optics in Microelectronics, sponsored by the Optical Society of America at Las Vegas, Nev., 25–27 Jan. 1971.

S. Bradbury, The Evolution of the Microscope (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967), Chap. 6.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan, 1934, reprinted by Dover, New York, 1967), 3rd ed., p. 215.

H. R. Verry, Microcopying Methods, revised by G. H. Wright (Focal Press, London and New York, 1967), p. 19.

“Where the Action Is in Electronics,” special report, Business Week, Oct.4, 86 (1964).

G. W. W. Stevens, Microphotography (Wiley, New York, 1968).

J. H. Altman, H. C. Schmitt, in Proceedings of the 1968 Kodak Microminiaturization Seminar (Kodak publ. P-192-B), p. 12.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illuminated manuscript (1481) containing fourteen verses of St. John’s Gospel inscribed in the 13-mm circle at the bottom. [From J. J. G. Alexander and A. C. de la Mere, The Italian Manuscripts in the Library of Major Abbey (Faber and Faber, London, 1969).]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shadbolt camera for microphotography.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Microimage formed on high resolution plate, Type I, by green light; (B) as A, except formed by blue light; (C) micro-image formed on high resolution plate, Type II, by blue light.

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