Abstract

Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the uv and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. O. Pilon, C. G. Purves, “Radar Detection and Monitoring of Oil Slicks,” NRL Letter Report 5270-20: ROP: CGP: bjg Ser. 2615 (30March1971).
  2. R. Horvath, W. Morgan, R. Spellicy, “Measurement Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics, Final Report,” Report 2766-7-F, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (February1970).
  3. Barringer Research Ltd., “The Feasibility of Detection and Classification of Fish Oil Slicks by Remote Sensing,” Final Report NASA Contract NASW-1642, Barringer Research Ltd., Ontario, Canada (February1968).
  4. K. Y. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, International Geophysics Series (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 12, pp. 367, 383.
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Fritz, in Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed. (American Meteorology Soc., Boston, 1951), pp. 13–33.
  6. R. J. List, Ed., Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1963), pp. 422, 439.
  7. K. L. Coulson, “Characteristics of the Radiation Emerging from the Top of a Rayleigh Atmosphere, I,” Planet. Space Sci. (Pergamon, London, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 265–276.
    [CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, “Characteristics of the Radiation Emerging from the Top of a Rayleigh Atmosphere, I,” Planet. Space Sci. (Pergamon, London, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 265–276.
[CrossRef]

Fritz, S.

S. Fritz, in Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed. (American Meteorology Soc., Boston, 1951), pp. 13–33.

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, W. Morgan, R. Spellicy, “Measurement Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics, Final Report,” Report 2766-7-F, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (February1970).

Kondratyev, K. Y.

K. Y. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, International Geophysics Series (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 12, pp. 367, 383.
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W.

R. Horvath, W. Morgan, R. Spellicy, “Measurement Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics, Final Report,” Report 2766-7-F, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (February1970).

Pilon, R. O.

R. O. Pilon, C. G. Purves, “Radar Detection and Monitoring of Oil Slicks,” NRL Letter Report 5270-20: ROP: CGP: bjg Ser. 2615 (30March1971).

Purves, C. G.

R. O. Pilon, C. G. Purves, “Radar Detection and Monitoring of Oil Slicks,” NRL Letter Report 5270-20: ROP: CGP: bjg Ser. 2615 (30March1971).

Spellicy, R.

R. Horvath, W. Morgan, R. Spellicy, “Measurement Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics, Final Report,” Report 2766-7-F, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (February1970).

Other (7)

R. O. Pilon, C. G. Purves, “Radar Detection and Monitoring of Oil Slicks,” NRL Letter Report 5270-20: ROP: CGP: bjg Ser. 2615 (30March1971).

R. Horvath, W. Morgan, R. Spellicy, “Measurement Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics, Final Report,” Report 2766-7-F, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (February1970).

Barringer Research Ltd., “The Feasibility of Detection and Classification of Fish Oil Slicks by Remote Sensing,” Final Report NASA Contract NASW-1642, Barringer Research Ltd., Ontario, Canada (February1968).

K. Y. Kondratyev, Radiation in the Atmosphere, International Geophysics Series (Academic, New York, 1969), Vol. 12, pp. 367, 383.
[CrossRef]

S. Fritz, in Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed. (American Meteorology Soc., Boston, 1951), pp. 13–33.

R. J. List, Ed., Smithsonian Meteorological Tables (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1963), pp. 422, 439.

K. L. Coulson, “Characteristics of the Radiation Emerging from the Top of a Rayleigh Atmosphere, I,” Planet. Space Sci. (Pergamon, London, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 265–276.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Airborne oil-spill detection method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectroradiometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential radiometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular reflectance of oil and water.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral radiance from ocean water.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excitation and response fluorescence spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Solar irradiance at ground level.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral distribution of sky radiance at various azimuth angles.4

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sky polarization as a function of zenith look-angle in the plane of the sun.7

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Contrast in radiance of oil-covered to natural seawater at 400 nm: 23 October 1970, overcast skies.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Contrast in radiance of oil-covered to natural seawater: 24 October 1970, overcast.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Contrast in radiance of oil-covered to natural seawater: 28 October 1970, clear skies.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Contrast in radiance of oil-covered to natural seawater at 400 nm: 30 October 1970, clear skies changing to overcast.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Contrast in radiance of oil-covered to natural seawater: 22 API gravity crude.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Contrast in radiance of oil-covered to natural seawater.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Differential radiance between 526 nm and 576 nm: 2 December 1970, clear skies, diesel, and twenty-two gravity oils.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Differential radiance between 380 nm and 427 nm: 2 December 1970, clear skies, diesel, and twenty-two gravity oils.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Ultraviolet polarization: 3 December 1970, clear skies, diesel, and twenty-two gravity oils merged.

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