Abstract

A far-infrared radiometer, cooled to 1.6 K by superfluid helium, has been flown in a Terrier–Sandhawk rocket. The instrument was designed to measure night-sky radiation in three wavelength passbands between 6 mm and 0.1 mm at altitudes between 120 km and 350 km. A failure in the rocket nose cone separation system prevented the measurement of this radiation, but the performance of the instrument during flight was generally satisfactory. Design features and operational characteristics of the cryogenic, optical, detection, and electronic systems are presented.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Muehlner, R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 742 (1970); J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 157, L45 (1969); K. Shivanandan, J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1460 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. J. Bortolet, J. F. Clauser, P. Thaddeus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 307 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. H. Aumann, F. J. Low, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 159, L159 (1970); W. F. Hoffman, C. L. Frederick, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 155, L9 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).
  6. The cryostat was originally built by Cryenco, Inc., 4955 Bannock, St., Denver, Colo. 80216, with modifications made at our laboratory.
  7. D. W. Williamson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 712 (1952); R. C. Ohlmann, P. L. Richards, M. Tinkham, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 531 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, e.g., D. P. McNutt, K. Shivanandan, P. D. Feldman, Appl. Opt. 8, 2199 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Obtained from Bulova Watch Co., Inc., 81-20 Woodside Ave., Woodside, N.J. 11377.
  10. W. Witte, Infrared Phys. 5, 179 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 17 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967); Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. D. Drew, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Opt. 8, 2067 (1969); S. Zwerdling, R. A. Smith, J. P. Theriault, Infrared Phys. 8, 271 (1968); F. J. Low, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 1300 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Boule obtained from NPC Metals and Chemical Co., Los Angeles, Calif. The fabricated bolometers had typical operating resistances from 0.5 MΩ to 1.0 MΩ at 1.6 K.
  16. Model RA-12, manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Tex.
  17. A. R. Karoli, J. R. Hickey, R. E. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 6, 1183 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. 3M Nextel Brand Black Velvet Coating No. 401-C10, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., 2121 Santa Ana Ave., Dallas, Tex. 75228.

1970

D. Muehlner, R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 742 (1970); J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 157, L45 (1969); K. Shivanandan, J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1460 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Aumann, F. J. Low, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 159, L159 (1970); W. F. Hoffman, C. L. Frederick, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 155, L9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1969

1967

A. R. Karoli, J. R. Hickey, R. E. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 6, 1183 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967); Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

W. Witte, Infrared Phys. 5, 179 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962

Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 17 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1953

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952

D. W. Williamson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 712 (1952); R. C. Ohlmann, P. L. Richards, M. Tinkham, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 531 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Aumann, H. H.

H. H. Aumann, F. J. Low, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 159, L159 (1970); W. F. Hoffman, C. L. Frederick, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 155, L9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Beery, J. G.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Blair, A. G.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Bortolet, V. J.

V. J. Bortolet, J. F. Clauser, P. Thaddeus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 307 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Clauser, J. F.

V. J. Bortolet, J. F. Clauser, P. Thaddeus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 307 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Drew, H. D.

Edeskuty, F.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Feldman, P. D.

Hickey, J. R.

Hiebert, R. D.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Jones, D. M.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Karoli, A. R.

Low, F. J.

H. H. Aumann, F. J. Low, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 159, L159 (1970); W. F. Hoffman, C. L. Frederick, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 155, L9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McNutt, D. P.

Mitsuishi, A.

Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 17 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Muehlner, D.

D. Muehlner, R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 742 (1970); J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 157, L45 (1969); K. Shivanandan, J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1460 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. E.

Peebles, P. J. E.

R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Roll, P. G.

R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, J. P.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Shivanandan, K.

Sievers, A. J.

Thaddeus, P.

V. J. Bortolet, J. F. Clauser, P. Thaddeus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 307 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967); Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

D. Muehlner, R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 742 (1970); J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 157, L45 (1969); K. Shivanandan, J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1460 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D. T.

R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D. W.

D. W. Williamson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 712 (1952); R. C. Ohlmann, P. L. Richards, M. Tinkham, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 531 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, K. D.

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

Witte, W.

W. Witte, Infrared Phys. 5, 179 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 17 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaga, H.

Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 17 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, D. T. Wilkinson, Astrophys. J. 142, 419 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (Lett.)

H. H. Aumann, F. J. Low, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 159, L159 (1970); W. F. Hoffman, C. L. Frederick, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 155, L9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

W. Witte, Infrared Phys. 5, 179 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967); Infrared Phys. 7, 65 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 1 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 17 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Williamson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 712 (1952); R. C. Ohlmann, P. L. Richards, M. Tinkham, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 531 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Muehlner, R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 742 (1970); J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 157, L45 (1969); K. Shivanandan, J. R. Houck, M. Harwit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1460 (1968).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Bortolet, J. F. Clauser, P. Thaddeus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 307 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. G. Blair, J. G. Beery, F. Edeskuty, R. D. Hiebert, D. M. Jones, J. P. Shipley, K. D. Williamson, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Rept. No. LA-4357-MS (1970, unpublished).

The cryostat was originally built by Cryenco, Inc., 4955 Bannock, St., Denver, Colo. 80216, with modifications made at our laboratory.

Obtained from Bulova Watch Co., Inc., 81-20 Woodside Ave., Woodside, N.J. 11377.

3M Nextel Brand Black Velvet Coating No. 401-C10, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., 2121 Santa Ana Ave., Dallas, Tex. 75228.

Boule obtained from NPC Metals and Chemical Co., Los Angeles, Calif. The fabricated bolometers had typical operating resistances from 0.5 MΩ to 1.0 MΩ at 1.6 K.

Model RA-12, manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Tex.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of cryostat. T1, T2, and T3 refer to the locations of three germanium thermometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system employed in the far-infrared instrument. Some mechanical supporting structure is not shown. (a) Cross-sectional view. (b) Top view of upper cones and cylinder C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Antenna pattern of light cone assembly at 3.1-mm wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mounting frame for bolometers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of on-board electronics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature history of experimental vessel during the first 400 see of flight. The curves are numbered according to the positions of the sensors as shown in Fig. 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Heat Loads and Holding Times

Metrics