Abstract

Although Robert J. Cashman was not the first to make reliable photoconductive cells of thallous sulfide, his wartime investigations are of historical significance. From these efforts, he learned a technique to photosensitive lead sulfide. This permitted infrared systems to be built with considerably improved response to thermal emissions, and interest in infrared technology rapidly grew. Cashman’s work was sponsored by OSRD during the war years 1941–1945. His efforts were directed toward perfecting a usable cell and were undertaken by empirically noting the effects obtained by varying the parameters associated with constructing a cell.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Lovell, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 467 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Lovell, Rep. AFOSR 68-0264 (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1968).
  3. R. J. Cashman, Final Rep. under Contract OEMsr-235,13October1945. Submitted by Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to National Defense Research Committee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 16, Sec. 16, 4, OSRD Rept. 5977, p. 3.
  4. R. J. Cashman, Rep. to NAN Committee, February27, 1947, Northwestern University, February1947.
  5. B. J. Spence, “Development of Thallous-Oxy-Sulfide PhotoConductivity Cells,” Bimonthly Rep., 1December1941;1February1942, contract OEMsr-235 OSRD Rept. 5997.
  6. V. Bush, Science the Endless Frontier (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1945).
  7. J. S. Owens, Editor, Non-Image Forming Infrared, Summary Tech. Rep. Division 16, NDRC, Vol. 3 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1946).
  8. W. N. Arnquist, Proc. IRE 47, 1420 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. W. Case, Phys. Rev. 9, 305 (1917).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. W. Case, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 6, 398 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 14, 251 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. W. Case, Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications, John S. Anderson, Ed. (The Physical and Optical Societies, London, June1930), pp. 213–218.
  13. See Ref. 3, p. 3.
  14. See Ref. 3, p. 5 cites: A. H. Wilson, Semiconductors and Metals (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1939). H. Frohlich, Elektronentheorie der Metalle (Springer, Berlin, 1936). F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940). N. F. Mott, D. Gurney, Electronic Processes in Ionic Crystals (Oxford U. P., Oxford, England, 1940).
  15. See Ref. 3, p. 6.
  16. R. J. Cashman, Proc. IRIS, 3, 184 (1958).
  17. C. W. Hewlett, J. J. FitzPatrick, J. T. Wrobel, OSRD Rep. 5099, Sec. No. 16, 4–39, February1945.
  18. R. W. Engstrom, A. M. Clover, OSRD Rep. No. 6003, Sec. No. 16, 4–6916April–31October1945.
  19. H. W. White, A. Eninarsson, C. G. Miller, OSRD Rep. No. 6002, Sec. No. 16, 4–68, November1945.
  20. B. J. Spence, OSRD Rep. 5999, Sec. No. 16, 4–65, October1945.
  21. W. L. Hole, L. N. Holland, OSRD Rep. 5298, Sec. 16, 4–35, April1945.
  22. G. A. Van Lear, OSRD Rep. 1384, Sec. No. 16, 4–5, March1943; G. A. Van Lear, OSRD Rep. 1585, Sec. No. 16, 4–10, June1943.
  23. Contract OEMsr-235 File, NDRC Sec. 16, 4, National Archives.
  24. R. J. Cashman, OSRD Rep. 5998, Sec. 16, 4–64, October1945.

1969 (1)

D. J. Lovell, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 467 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. N. Arnquist, Proc. IRE 47, 1420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. J. Cashman, Proc. IRIS, 3, 184 (1958).

1927 (1)

J. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 14, 251 (1927).
[CrossRef]

1922 (1)

T. W. Case, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 6, 398 (1922).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

T. W. Case, Phys. Rev. 9, 305 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Arnquist, W. N.

W. N. Arnquist, Proc. IRE 47, 1420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bush, V.

V. Bush, Science the Endless Frontier (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1945).

Case, T. W.

T. W. Case, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 6, 398 (1922).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Case, Phys. Rev. 9, 305 (1917).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Case, Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications, John S. Anderson, Ed. (The Physical and Optical Societies, London, June1930), pp. 213–218.

Cashman, R. J.

R. J. Cashman, Proc. IRIS, 3, 184 (1958).

R. J. Cashman, Final Rep. under Contract OEMsr-235,13October1945. Submitted by Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to National Defense Research Committee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 16, Sec. 16, 4, OSRD Rept. 5977, p. 3.

R. J. Cashman, Rep. to NAN Committee, February27, 1947, Northwestern University, February1947.

R. J. Cashman, OSRD Rep. 5998, Sec. 16, 4–64, October1945.

Clover, A. M.

R. W. Engstrom, A. M. Clover, OSRD Rep. No. 6003, Sec. No. 16, 4–6916April–31October1945.

Engstrom, R. W.

R. W. Engstrom, A. M. Clover, OSRD Rep. No. 6003, Sec. No. 16, 4–6916April–31October1945.

Eninarsson, A.

H. W. White, A. Eninarsson, C. G. Miller, OSRD Rep. No. 6002, Sec. No. 16, 4–68, November1945.

FitzPatrick, J. J.

C. W. Hewlett, J. J. FitzPatrick, J. T. Wrobel, OSRD Rep. 5099, Sec. No. 16, 4–39, February1945.

Hewlett, C. W.

C. W. Hewlett, J. J. FitzPatrick, J. T. Wrobel, OSRD Rep. 5099, Sec. No. 16, 4–39, February1945.

Hole, W. L.

W. L. Hole, L. N. Holland, OSRD Rep. 5298, Sec. 16, 4–35, April1945.

Holland, L. N.

W. L. Hole, L. N. Holland, OSRD Rep. 5298, Sec. 16, 4–35, April1945.

Kaplan, J.

J. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 14, 251 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Lovell, D. J.

D. J. Lovell, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 467 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lovell, Rep. AFOSR 68-0264 (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1968).

Miller, C. G.

H. W. White, A. Eninarsson, C. G. Miller, OSRD Rep. No. 6002, Sec. No. 16, 4–68, November1945.

Spence, B. J.

B. J. Spence, OSRD Rep. 5999, Sec. No. 16, 4–65, October1945.

B. J. Spence, “Development of Thallous-Oxy-Sulfide PhotoConductivity Cells,” Bimonthly Rep., 1December1941;1February1942, contract OEMsr-235 OSRD Rept. 5997.

Van Lear, G. A.

G. A. Van Lear, OSRD Rep. 1384, Sec. No. 16, 4–5, March1943; G. A. Van Lear, OSRD Rep. 1585, Sec. No. 16, 4–10, June1943.

White, H. W.

H. W. White, A. Eninarsson, C. G. Miller, OSRD Rep. No. 6002, Sec. No. 16, 4–68, November1945.

Wilson, A. H.

See Ref. 3, p. 5 cites: A. H. Wilson, Semiconductors and Metals (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1939). H. Frohlich, Elektronentheorie der Metalle (Springer, Berlin, 1936). F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940). N. F. Mott, D. Gurney, Electronic Processes in Ionic Crystals (Oxford U. P., Oxford, England, 1940).

Wrobel, J. T.

C. W. Hewlett, J. J. FitzPatrick, J. T. Wrobel, OSRD Rep. 5099, Sec. No. 16, 4–39, February1945.

Amer. J. Phys. (1)

D. J. Lovell, Amer. J. Phys. 37, 467 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

T. W. Case, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 6, 398 (1922).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 14, 251 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. W. Case, Phys. Rev. 9, 305 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

W. N. Arnquist, Proc. IRE 47, 1420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRIS (1)

R. J. Cashman, Proc. IRIS, 3, 184 (1958).

Other (18)

C. W. Hewlett, J. J. FitzPatrick, J. T. Wrobel, OSRD Rep. 5099, Sec. No. 16, 4–39, February1945.

R. W. Engstrom, A. M. Clover, OSRD Rep. No. 6003, Sec. No. 16, 4–6916April–31October1945.

H. W. White, A. Eninarsson, C. G. Miller, OSRD Rep. No. 6002, Sec. No. 16, 4–68, November1945.

B. J. Spence, OSRD Rep. 5999, Sec. No. 16, 4–65, October1945.

W. L. Hole, L. N. Holland, OSRD Rep. 5298, Sec. 16, 4–35, April1945.

G. A. Van Lear, OSRD Rep. 1384, Sec. No. 16, 4–5, March1943; G. A. Van Lear, OSRD Rep. 1585, Sec. No. 16, 4–10, June1943.

Contract OEMsr-235 File, NDRC Sec. 16, 4, National Archives.

R. J. Cashman, OSRD Rep. 5998, Sec. 16, 4–64, October1945.

T. W. Case, Photoelectric Cells and Their Applications, John S. Anderson, Ed. (The Physical and Optical Societies, London, June1930), pp. 213–218.

See Ref. 3, p. 3.

See Ref. 3, p. 5 cites: A. H. Wilson, Semiconductors and Metals (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1939). H. Frohlich, Elektronentheorie der Metalle (Springer, Berlin, 1936). F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940). N. F. Mott, D. Gurney, Electronic Processes in Ionic Crystals (Oxford U. P., Oxford, England, 1940).

See Ref. 3, p. 6.

D. J. Lovell, Rep. AFOSR 68-0264 (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1968).

R. J. Cashman, Final Rep. under Contract OEMsr-235,13October1945. Submitted by Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to National Defense Research Committee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Division 16, Sec. 16, 4, OSRD Rept. 5977, p. 3.

R. J. Cashman, Rep. to NAN Committee, February27, 1947, Northwestern University, February1947.

B. J. Spence, “Development of Thallous-Oxy-Sulfide PhotoConductivity Cells,” Bimonthly Rep., 1December1941;1February1942, contract OEMsr-235 OSRD Rept. 5997.

V. Bush, Science the Endless Frontier (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1945).

J. S. Owens, Editor, Non-Image Forming Infrared, Summary Tech. Rep. Division 16, NDRC, Vol. 3 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1946).

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