Abstract

A review is presented of the application of polarimetry to the determination of the properties of the lunar surface layer by comparison with laboratory surfaces, from the time of Arago to the Apollo 11 sampling. The polarizing properties of pulverized volcanogenic products and chemicals, as they are determined by wavelength, particle size, phase angle, state of compaction, and composition, are studied. It is learned, through the study of the slope of the polarization/wavelength curve in the near uv, that the lunar surface must contain a large component of translucent rather than totally opaque particles. The lunar particles are basalt in composition, are less than 50 μm in size, and comprise a loosely arranged surface structure. Earth-based determinations are in good agreement with the Apollo 11 sampling results; thus these remote-sensing techniques are applicable to the studies of other planetary surfaces. Comparison between the surfaces of Mercury, some asteroids, and the moon is made.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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G. V. Coyne, S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 75, 54 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. O’Leary, F. Briggs, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6532 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Mitchell, S. F. Pellicori, The Moon 2, 3 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Hapke, A. J. Cohen, W. A. Cassidy, E. N. Wells, Science 167, 745 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gehrels, E. Roemer, R. C. Taylor, B. H. Zellner, Astron. J. 75, 186 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (4)

K. L. Coulson, Appl. Opt. 8, 1287 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 74, 1066 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. B. McCord, Astron. J. 74, 273 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. Dollfus, E. Bowell, Observ. De Paris-Meudon (June1969).

1968 (3)

R. G. Strom, G. Fielder, Nature 217, 611 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Cohen, B. W. Hapke, Science 161, 1237 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Hapke, Science 159, 76 (1968).
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1967 (4)

H. H. Blau, E. L. Gray, G. M. B. Bouricius, Appl. Opt. 6, 1899 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Adams, A. L. Filice, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5705 (1967).
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C. E. KenKnight, D. L. Rosenberg, G. K. Wehner, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3105 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. C. McCoyd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 1345 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (3)

K. L. Coulson, Appl. Opt. 5, 905 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Oetking, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hopfield, Science 151, 1380 (1966).
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1965 (2)

K. L. Coulson, G. M. Bouricius, E. L. Gray, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Coffeen, Astron. J. 70, 403 (1965).
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1964 (3)

D. Clarke, Astron. Contrib. Univ. Manchester Ser. III No. 107 (1964).

B. Lyot, NASA Tech. Transl. F-187 (1964).

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, Astron. J. 69, 826 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

B. W. Hapke, H. VanHorn, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4545 (1963).
[CrossRef]

T. Gehrels, T. M. Teska, Appl. Opt. 2, 67 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

V. G. Tejfel, Astron. Tsirk. 205, 7 (1959).

1956 (1)

N. P. Barabashev, A. T. Chekrida, Astron. Zh. 33, 549 (1956).

1924 (1)

G. P. Woronkoff, G. J. Pokrowski, Z. Physik 30, 139 (1924).
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1922 (1)

P. Salet, L’Astronomie408 (1922).

1905 (1)

N. Umov, Phys. Z. 6, 674 (1905).

1889 (1)

J. J. Landerer, Compt. Rend. 109, 360 (1889).

1878 (1)

W. Parsons, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 1(19), 1878.

1861 (1)

D. Brewster, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 23, Pt. II, 205 (1861).
[CrossRef]

1860 (1)

E. Verdet, Opt. Phys. 2, 488 (1860).

1859 (1)

Secchi, Mon. Not. Roy. Aston. Soc. 19 (8), 289 (1859).

1852 (1)

Provostaye, Desain, Ann. Chim. Phys. 3, 34 (1852) (cited in Ref. 9).

1811 (1)

D. E. Arago, Oeuvres Completes 10, 562 (1811).

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J. B. Adams, A. L. Filice, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5705 (1967).
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D. E. Arago, Oeuvres Completes 10, 562 (1811).

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Bouricius, G. M.

K. L. Coulson, G. M. Bouricius, E. L. Gray, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601 (1965).
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A. Dollfus, E. Bowell, Observ. De Paris-Meudon (June1969).

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Briggs, F.

B. O’Leary, F. Briggs, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6532 (1970).
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B. W. Hapke, A. J. Cohen, W. A. Cassidy, E. N. Wells, Science 167, 745 (1970).
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Chekrida, A. T.

N. P. Barabashev, A. T. Chekrida, Astron. Zh. 33, 549 (1956).

Clarke, D.

D. Clarke, Astron. Contrib. Univ. Manchester Ser. III No. 107 (1964).

Coffeen, D. L.

D. L. Coffeen, Astron. J. 70, 403 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Coffeen, T.

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, Astron. J. 69, 826 (1964).
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Cohen, A. J.

B. W. Hapke, A. J. Cohen, W. A. Cassidy, E. N. Wells, Science 167, 745 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Cohen, B. W. Hapke, Science 161, 1237 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coulson, K. L.

Coyne, G. V.

G. V. Coyne, S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 75, 54 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Desain,

Provostaye, Desain, Ann. Chim. Phys. 3, 34 (1852) (cited in Ref. 9).

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J. A. Wood, U. B. Marvin, B. N. Powell, J. S. Dickey, Smithsonian Astrophys. Obs. Spec. Rep. 307 (1970).

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A. Dollfus, E. Bowell, Observ. De Paris-Meudon (June1969).

A. Dollfus, in Planets and Satellites, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961).

A. Dollfus, in The Nature of the Lunar Surface, W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O’Keefe, Eds. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).

Egan, W. G.

W. G. Egan, L. L. Smith, G. C. McCoyd, Grumman Res. Dept. Rep. RE-250 (1966).

Fielder, G.

R. G. Strom, G. Fielder, Nature 217, 611 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Filice, A. L.

J. B. Adams, A. L. Filice, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5705 (1967).
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Franzgrote, E. J.

E. J. Franzgrote, J. H. Patterson, A. L. Turkevich, in Surveyor VII Mission Rep., Pt. II, JPL Tech. Rep. 32-1264, 241 (1968).

Gehrels, T.

T. Gehrels, E. Roemer, R. C. Taylor, B. H. Zellner, Astron. J. 75, 186 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, Astron. J. 69, 826 (1964).
[CrossRef]

T. Gehrels, T. M. Teska, Appl. Opt. 2, 67 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gray, E. L.

H. H. Blau, E. L. Gray, G. M. B. Bouricius, Appl. Opt. 6, 1899 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Coulson, G. M. Bouricius, E. L. Gray, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B. W.

B. W. Hapke, A. J. Cohen, W. A. Cassidy, E. N. Wells, Science 167, 745 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Cohen, B. W. Hapke, Science 161, 1237 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Hapke, Science 159, 76 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Hapke, H. VanHorn, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4545 (1963).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Hapke, in The Nature of the Lunar Surface, W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O’Keefe, Eds. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).

Hopfield, J. J.

J. J. Hopfield, Science 151, 1380 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

KenKnight, C. E.

C. E. KenKnight, D. L. Rosenberg, G. K. Wehner, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3105 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wehner, D. L. Rosenberg, C. E. KenKnight, Fourteenth Quarterly Status Report No. 2613, Applied Science Div., Litton Systems, Inc., Minneapolis (1967).

Kohan, E. K.

E. K. Kohan, The Moon, Z. Kopal, Z. K. Mikhailov, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1962).

Landerer, J. J.

J. J. Landerer, Compt. Rend. 109, 360 (1889).

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, NASA Tech. Transl. F-187 (1964).

Marvin, U. B.

J. A. Wood, U. B. Marvin, B. N. Powell, J. S. Dickey, Smithsonian Astrophys. Obs. Spec. Rep. 307 (1970).

McCord, T. B.

T. B. McCord, Astron. J. 74, 273 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McCoyd, G. C.

G. C. McCoyd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 1345 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Egan, L. L. Smith, G. C. McCoyd, Grumman Res. Dept. Rep. RE-250 (1966).

Mitchell, R. I.

R. I. Mitchell, S. F. Pellicori, The Moon 2, 3 (1970).
[CrossRef]

O’Leary, B.

B. O’Leary, F. Briggs, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6532 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Oetking, P.

P. Oetking, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Owings, D.

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, Astron. J. 69, 826 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, W.

W. Parsons, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 1(19), 1878.

Patterson, J. H.

E. J. Franzgrote, J. H. Patterson, A. L. Turkevich, in Surveyor VII Mission Rep., Pt. II, JPL Tech. Rep. 32-1264, 241 (1968).

Pellicori, S. F.

R. I. Mitchell, S. F. Pellicori, The Moon 2, 3 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Coyne, S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 75, 54 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 74, 1066 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Pellicori, Tech. Rep. 42, Opt. Sci. Center, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (1969).

Pokrowski, G. J.

G. P. Woronkoff, G. J. Pokrowski, Z. Physik 30, 139 (1924).
[CrossRef]

Powell, B. N.

J. A. Wood, U. B. Marvin, B. N. Powell, J. S. Dickey, Smithsonian Astrophys. Obs. Spec. Rep. 307 (1970).

Provostaye,

Provostaye, Desain, Ann. Chim. Phys. 3, 34 (1852) (cited in Ref. 9).

Roemer, E.

T. Gehrels, E. Roemer, R. C. Taylor, B. H. Zellner, Astron. J. 75, 186 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D. L.

C. E. KenKnight, D. L. Rosenberg, G. K. Wehner, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3105 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wehner, D. L. Rosenberg, C. E. KenKnight, Fourteenth Quarterly Status Report No. 2613, Applied Science Div., Litton Systems, Inc., Minneapolis (1967).

Saari, J. M.

J. M. Saari, R. W. Shorthill, NASA Contractors Rep. CR-855, NASA, Washington, D. C. (1967).

Salet, P.

P. Salet, L’Astronomie408 (1922).

Secchi,

Secchi, Mon. Not. Roy. Aston. Soc. 19 (8), 289 (1859).

Shorthill, R. W.

J. M. Saari, R. W. Shorthill, NASA Contractors Rep. CR-855, NASA, Washington, D. C. (1967).

Smith, L. L.

W. G. Egan, L. L. Smith, G. C. McCoyd, Grumman Res. Dept. Rep. RE-250 (1966).

Strom, R. G.

R. G. Strom, G. Fielder, Nature 217, 611 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. C.

T. Gehrels, E. Roemer, R. C. Taylor, B. H. Zellner, Astron. J. 75, 186 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tejfel, V. G.

V. G. Tejfel, Astron. Tsirk. 205, 7 (1959).

Teska, T. M.

Turkevich, A. L.

E. J. Franzgrote, J. H. Patterson, A. L. Turkevich, in Surveyor VII Mission Rep., Pt. II, JPL Tech. Rep. 32-1264, 241 (1968).

Umov, N.

N. Umov, Phys. Z. 6, 674 (1905).

VanHorn, H.

B. W. Hapke, H. VanHorn, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4545 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Verdet, E.

E. Verdet, Opt. Phys. 2, 488 (1860).

Wehner, G. K.

C. E. KenKnight, D. L. Rosenberg, G. K. Wehner, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3105 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wehner, D. L. Rosenberg, C. E. KenKnight, Fourteenth Quarterly Status Report No. 2613, Applied Science Div., Litton Systems, Inc., Minneapolis (1967).

Wells, E. N.

B. W. Hapke, A. J. Cohen, W. A. Cassidy, E. N. Wells, Science 167, 745 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, E. A.

E. A. Whitaker, in Analysis of Apollo 8 Photography and Visual Observations, NASA SP-201 (1969), p. 39.

E. A. Whitaker in The Nature of the Lunar Surface, W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O’Keefe, Eds. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).

Wood, J. A.

J. A. Wood, U. B. Marvin, B. N. Powell, J. S. Dickey, Smithsonian Astrophys. Obs. Spec. Rep. 307 (1970).

Woronkoff, G. P.

G. P. Woronkoff, G. J. Pokrowski, Z. Physik 30, 139 (1924).
[CrossRef]

Wright, F. E.

F. E. Wright et al., Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Yearbook 37, 381 (1937/38).

Zellner, B. H.

T. Gehrels, E. Roemer, R. C. Taylor, B. H. Zellner, Astron. J. 75, 186 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Chim. Phys. (1)

Provostaye, Desain, Ann. Chim. Phys. 3, 34 (1852) (cited in Ref. 9).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Contrib. Univ. Manchester Ser. III No. (1)

D. Clarke, Astron. Contrib. Univ. Manchester Ser. III No. 107 (1964).

Astron. J. (6)

D. L. Coffeen, Astron. J. 70, 403 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 74, 1066 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Coyne, S. F. Pellicori, Astron. J. 75, 54 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Gehrels, T. Coffeen, D. Owings, Astron. J. 69, 826 (1964).
[CrossRef]

T. Gehrels, E. Roemer, R. C. Taylor, B. H. Zellner, Astron. J. 75, 186 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. B. McCord, Astron. J. 74, 273 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Tsirk. (1)

V. G. Tejfel, Astron. Tsirk. 205, 7 (1959).

Astron. Zh. (1)

N. P. Barabashev, A. T. Chekrida, Astron. Zh. 33, 549 (1956).

Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Yearbook (1)

F. E. Wright et al., Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Yearbook 37, 381 (1937/38).

Compt. Rend. (1)

J. J. Landerer, Compt. Rend. 109, 360 (1889).

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

K. L. Coulson, G. M. Bouricius, E. L. Gray, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Hapke, H. VanHorn, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4545 (1963).
[CrossRef]

C. E. KenKnight, D. L. Rosenberg, G. K. Wehner, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3105 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. Oetking, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Adams, A. L. Filice, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5705 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. O’Leary, F. Briggs, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6532 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

G. C. McCoyd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 1345 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L’Astronomie (1)

P. Salet, L’Astronomie408 (1922).

Mon. Not. Roy. Aston. Soc. (1)

Secchi, Mon. Not. Roy. Aston. Soc. 19 (8), 289 (1859).

NASA Tech. Transl. F-187 (1)

B. Lyot, NASA Tech. Transl. F-187 (1964).

Nature (1)

R. G. Strom, G. Fielder, Nature 217, 611 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Observ. De Paris-Meudon (1)

A. Dollfus, E. Bowell, Observ. De Paris-Meudon (June1969).

Oeuvres Completes (1)

D. E. Arago, Oeuvres Completes 10, 562 (1811).

Opt. Phys. (1)

E. Verdet, Opt. Phys. 2, 488 (1860).

Phys. Z. (1)

N. Umov, Phys. Z. 6, 674 (1905).

Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. (1)

W. Parsons, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 1(19), 1878.

Science (4)

B. W. Hapke, Science 159, 76 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Cohen, B. W. Hapke, Science 161, 1237 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Hapke, A. J. Cohen, W. A. Cassidy, E. N. Wells, Science 167, 745 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Hopfield, Science 151, 1380 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Moon (1)

R. I. Mitchell, S. F. Pellicori, The Moon 2, 3 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh (1)

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Z. Physik (1)

G. P. Woronkoff, G. J. Pokrowski, Z. Physik 30, 139 (1924).
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Other (14)

E. K. Kohan, The Moon, Z. Kopal, Z. K. Mikhailov, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1962).

A. Dollfus, in Planets and Satellites, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961).

A. Dollfus, in The Nature of the Lunar Surface, W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O’Keefe, Eds. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).

Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems—Ptolemaic and Copernican (Tranl. by S. Drake, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1967).

W. G. Egan, L. L. Smith, G. C. McCoyd, Grumman Res. Dept. Rep. RE-250 (1966).

B. W. Hapke, in The Nature of the Lunar Surface, W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O’Keefe, Eds. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).

G. K. Wehner, D. L. Rosenberg, C. E. KenKnight, Fourteenth Quarterly Status Report No. 2613, Applied Science Div., Litton Systems, Inc., Minneapolis (1967).

E. A. Whitaker in The Nature of the Lunar Surface, W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O’Keefe, Eds. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization vs phase angle at five wavelengths for integrated disk of the moon (solid lines). The curves are for wavelengths: N, 0.336 μ; U, 0.367 μ; S, 0.383 μ; B, 0.449 μ; G, 0.519 μ. Dashed curve is from Lyot (Ref. 14).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrograph of black basalt particles, phase angle 0°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrograph of black basalt particles, phase angle 55°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laboratory apparatus used for polarization studies of surfaces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top: Polarization vs wavelength for black lava powder from inside a volcanic bomb from Hawaii. Effect of washing to remove smaller particles is shown. α = 90°, ι = ∊. Bottom: P vs α for above. Effect of wavelength is shown. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top: Polarization vs wavelength for olivine from Hawaiian sand. Effect of compaction by pressure with a flat surface is shown. Sizes ≤37 μm except as indicated. α = 90°, ι = ∊. Bottom: P vs α for above. Effects of compaction, washing, and wavelength are shown. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization vs wavelength for solid surfaces. 6: glazed exterior and porous interior (pore sizes between 0.3 mm and 1 mm) of Hawaiian pahoehoe, 9: porous interior (same pore sizes) of Hawaiian purple aa. Reflectivities of above are <0.1. Also shown are surfaces of two freshly cleaved granites with reflectivities > 0.6. α = 90°, ι = .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Top: Polarization vs wavelength for olivine basalt; 5: (N. Ariz.) and pahoehoe; 6: (Hawaii) for the sizes and states of surface compaction indicated. α = 90°, ι = = 45°. W: washed to remove smaller particles. Bottom: P vs phase angle for above surfaces. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top: Polarization vs wavelength for red (Fe2O3) and black (Fe3O4) iron oxides and iron filings. α = 90°, ι = . Effect of compaction from pressure with flat surface is illustrated on Fe2O3. Sizes <10 μm except for iron filings. Bottom: P vs α at 0.40 μ and 0.67 μ for above. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Top: Polarization vs wavelength for powdered sulfur and carbon, both ≤37 μm. α = 90°, ι = ∊. Bottom: P vs α. Effects of compaction and of wavelength. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polarization of two size distributions of cobalt chloride crystals and transmission of an aqueous solution vs wavelength, 16. The large crystals are deep purple; when pulverized they display only a slight tint. 18: polarization of deposit of magnesium oxide smoke, reflectivity 0.95. The influences of internal absorption and of surface scattering are illustrated. α = 90°, ι = .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Depolarizing abilities of surfaces constructed of loosely compacted pulverized materials of different degrees of opaqueness. The abscissa is the difference between the incident 100% polarization and the polarization remaining in the scattered light. α = 90°, ι = .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Top: Polarization vs wavelength for pahoehoe lava; sizes indicated. α = 90°, = = 45°. W: washed of smaller particles (Mauna Loa). Bottom: Polarization vs phase angle for above. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Top: polarization vs wavelength for aa lava powder ≤37 μm. α = 90°, ι = = 45°. 8: rust colored (Mauna Loa); 2: purple (Sunset Crater, Ariz.); 9: purple (Mauna Loa); 3: black (Sunset Crater, Ariz.). Bottom: polarization vs phase angle for above. ι = = α/2; - - - 0.69 μ; — 0.40 μ.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Top: polarization vs wavelength for mixtures of powdered sulfur and carbon. Low signal-to-noise ratio is responsible for the anomalies. α = 90°, ι = ∊. Bottom: P vs α for above. ι = = α/2.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Phase angle dependence of polarization and brightness of the whole disk and of mare (P/2) and highland regions of the moon in blue light. Points above and below mean curves for whole moon show effect of librations on the integrated polarimetry. Region data from Ref. 36. Opposition effect measurements (α <10°) are from Ref. 38, remainder of albedo curve is from Rougier data (Ref. 39). Dashed lines are theoretical photometric functions; on the left the Schoenberg function, on the right are translucency terms with two different empirically determined coefficients (Refs. 25, 28, and 40).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spectral dependence of polarization for pure examples of topography, 30 see of arc diam, chosen for maximum color difference. The maria are bluer than the terrae; the newer maria are the bluest, and the highlands are the reddest. Numbers indicate quantity comprising these average curves. Bar at lower left indicates maximum deviation from average curve.

Tables (2)

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Table I Variation of αM with Refractive Indexa

Tables Icon

Table II ΔP/Δλ for 0.33 μ ≤ λ ≤ 0.43 μ, α = 90°

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