Abstract

A novel approach to time-lapse interferometry and contouring is introduced that uses television rather than photographic techniques. A first interferogram is stored on a video storage device such as a magnetic disk. After a change in the stress of the object, a second interferogram is electronically compared to the stored pattern to form a signal representative of the fringe pattern caused by the deformation. This signal may be directly displayed on a cathode-ray tube or employed by some automatic inspection device.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. H. Horman, Appl. Opt. 4, 333 (1965).
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  2. J. M. Burch, Prod. Eng. 44, 431 (1965).
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  3. K. A. Stetson, R. L. Powell, J. Op. Soc. Am. 55, 1964 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, Appl. Opt. 5, 172 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 642 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, Appl. Opt. 5, 595 (1966)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, Phys. Lett. 19, 10 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, Phys. Lett. 21, 422 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Tsuruta et al., Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 661 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 155 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Zelenka, J. R. Varner, Appl. Opt. 7, 2107 (1968).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. A. Stetson, Optik 29, 386 (1969).
  15. E. Baumann, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 60–61, 344 (1953).
  16. A. Macovski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 166 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Fink, Television Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952), p. 95.
  18. E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. N. Ennos, Opt. Acta 17, 833 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Tsuruta, Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Applications of Holography, Univ. of Besaçon, France, 6–11 July 1970.
  20. R. Nagata et al., Appl. Opt. 9, 2185 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (2)

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. N. Ennos, Opt. Acta 17, 833 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagata et al., Appl. Opt. 9, 2185 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (4)

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

T. Tsuruta et al., Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 661 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 155 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (4)

B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, Appl. Opt. 5, 172 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 642 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, Appl. Opt. 5, 595 (1966)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, Phys. Lett. 21, 422 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (4)

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, Phys. Lett. 19, 10 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Horman, Appl. Opt. 4, 333 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Burch, Prod. Eng. 44, 431 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stetson, R. L. Powell, J. Op. Soc. Am. 55, 1964 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

E. Baumann, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 60–61, 344 (1953).

Archbold, E.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. N. Ennos, Opt. Acta 17, 833 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

E. Baumann, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 60–61, 344 (1953).

Brandt, C. B.

Brooks, R. E.

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 642 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Burch, J. M.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. N. Ennos, Opt. Acta 17, 833 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Burch, Prod. Eng. 44, 431 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. N.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. N. Ennos, Opt. Acta 17, 833 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fink, D.

D. Fink, Television Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952), p. 95.

Haines, K. A.

Heflinger, L. O.

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 642 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrand, B. P.

Horman, M. H.

Macovski, A.

A. Macovski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 166 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, R.

Powell, R. L.

K. A. Stetson, R. L. Powell, J. Op. Soc. Am. 55, 1964 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Stetson, K. A.

K. A. Stetson, Optik 29, 386 (1969).

K. A. Stetson, R. L. Powell, J. Op. Soc. Am. 55, 1964 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruta, T.

T. Tsuruta et al., Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 661 (1967).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuruta, Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Applications of Holography, Univ. of Besaçon, France, 6–11 July 1970.

Varner, J. R.

Wuerker, R. F.

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 642 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Zelenka, J. S.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Macovski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 166 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 642 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Op. Soc. Am. (1)

K. A. Stetson, R. L. Powell, J. Op. Soc. Am. 55, 1964 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. (1)

E. Baumann, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 60–61, 344 (1953).

Japan. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tsuruta et al., Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 661 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, A. N. Ennos, Opt. Acta 17, 833 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

K. A. Stetson, Optik 29, 386 (1969).

Phys. Lett. (2)

K. A. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, Phys. Lett. 19, 10 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Hildebrand, K. A. Haines, Phys. Lett. 21, 422 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Prod. Eng. (1)

J. M. Burch, Prod. Eng. 44, 431 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Fink, Television Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952), p. 95.

T. Tsuruta, Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Applications of Holography, Univ. of Besaçon, France, 6–11 July 1970.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal offset system for time-lapse interferometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Storage camera system for time-lapse interferometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-lapse interferograms of a plastic block where the stresses are caused by (a) mechanical pressure and (b) heating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-lapse interferogram of an inflated rubber tube (a) observing an undamaged section of the tube and (b) observing a section having a small internal cut simulating a defect.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferometry system with the object illuminated by two beams.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-lapse interferogram of a diffuse slotted metal plate, where slight pressure was applied to one side of the slot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contour interferograms made using comparison with a flat reference surface for (a) a 25-cent coin, (b) a 50-cent coin, (c) a piece of sheet aluminum that has been dimpled by a punch, and (d) a sheet of aluminum bent into a V-shaped trough.

Equations (15)

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I ( x , y , t ) = e j ω t + a e j θ 2 = 1 + a 2 + 2 a cos ( ω t - θ ) .
e out ( t ) = a 2 [ 1 + cos ( θ 1 - θ 2 ) ] = a 2 [ 1 + cos 2 k ( Z 1 - Z 2 ) ] .
I = e j k β x + a e j θ 1 2 = 1 + a 2 + 2 a cos ( k β x - θ 1 ) .
i ( t ) = 1 + a 2 + 2 a cos ( ω t - θ 1 ) ,
i ( t ) = 1 + a 2 - 2 a cos ( ω t - θ 2 ) .
U ( x , y ) = a ( x , y ) { exp j k [ sin ( γ + α 2 ) x + cos ( γ + α 2 ) Z ( x , y ) ] + exp j k [ sin ( γ - α 2 ) x + cos ( γ - α 2 ) Z ( x , y ) ] } ,
I ( x , y ) = U ( x , y ) 2 = a ( x , y ) 2 { 1 + cos k [ 2 x cos γ sin ( α / 2 ) - 2 Z ( x , y ) sin γ sin ( α / 2 ) ] } ,
I ( x , y ) = a ( x , y ) 2 { 1 + cos 2 π [ x x - β Z ( x , y ) ] } ,
β max = 2 sin [ ( π / 2 ) - ( α / 2 ) ] sin ( α / 2 ) / λ = 2 cos ( α / 2 ) sin ( α / 2 ) / λ
x max = 2 cos [ ( π / 2 ) - ( α / 2 ) ] sin ( α / 2 ) = 2 sin 2 ( α / 2 ) / λ .
sin ( α / 2 ) max = ( λ x max / 2 ) 1 2 = ( λ N / 4 L ) 1 2 ,
β max ( N / λ L ) 1 2 .
I r = 1 + cos ( ω t + θ r ) ,
I 0 = a 2 [ 1 + cos ( ω t - θ 0 ) ] ,
e out ( t ) = 1 T t t + T I r ( τ ) I 0 ( τ ) d τ = a 2 [ 1 + 1 2 cos ( θ r - θ 0 ) ] ,

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