Abstract

The characteristics of the cw neutral argon ir laser are studied using a variety of techniques. The output power enhancement effects of helium and chlorine gases are measured, and the reasons for the enhancement are determined. The gain is measured for the 2.397-μm 2.208-μm, 2.062-μm and 1.792-μm laser lines, using an internal cavity-loss method and a single-pass amplifier method. In addition, the saturation intensity is measured, and competition effects are studied. It is concluded that helium aids excitation of the upper laser levels by producing a significant increase in the electron temperature. Chlorine is shown to aid de-excitation of the lower laser levels by partially depopulating the metastable argon 4s levels that lie just below them.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. K. N. Patel, R. A. MeFarlane, W. L. Faust, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 561–572.
  4. R. A. McFarlane, W. L. Faust, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 573–586.
  5. A. B. Dauger, O. M. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE6, 572 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Schleusener, A. A. Read, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 287 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. Circular467 (1949), Vol. 1.
  8. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 263–267.
  9. E. E. Benton, W. W. Robertson, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 114 (1962).
  10. R. T. Young, C. S. Willett, R. T. Maupin, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2936, (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. O. Shtyrkov, E. V. Subbes, Opt. Spectrosc. 21, 143 (1966).
  12. A. Von Engel, Ionized Gases (ClarendonOxford, 1965), pp. 242–243.
  13. R. T. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2324 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Papoular, Electrical Phenomena in Gases (American Elsevier, New York, 1965), pp. 135–136.
  15. F. W. Sears, Thermodynamics, the Kinetic Theory of Gases, and Statistical Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1953), pp. 239–240.
  16. C. K. N. Patel in Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1968), Vol. 2, pp. 1–190.
  17. A. V. Phelps, J. V. Molnar, Phys. Rev. 89, 1202 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Ellis, N. D. Twiddy, J. Phys. B2, 1366 (1969).
  19. T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 83, (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. R. Striganov, N. S. Stentitskii, Tables of Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1968), pp. 307–308.

1970 (2)

A. B. Dauger, O. M. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE6, 572 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Young, C. S. Willett, R. T. Maupin, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2936, (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. Ellis, N. D. Twiddy, J. Phys. B2, 1366 (1969).

1966 (2)

E. O. Shtyrkov, E. V. Subbes, Opt. Spectrosc. 21, 143 (1966).

S. A. Schleusener, A. A. Read, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 287 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. T. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2324 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Benton, W. W. Robertson, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 114 (1962).

1953 (1)

A. V. Phelps, J. V. Molnar, Phys. Rev. 89, 1202 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 83, (1951).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. Circular467 (1949), Vol. 1.

1947 (1)

T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, W. R.

C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Benton, E. E.

E. E. Benton, W. W. Robertson, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 114 (1962).

Dauger, A. B.

A. B. Dauger, O. M. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE6, 572 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, E.

E. Ellis, N. D. Twiddy, J. Phys. B2, 1366 (1969).

Faust, W. L.

W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, R. A. MeFarlane, W. L. Faust, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 561–572.

R. A. McFarlane, W. L. Faust, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 573–586.

Garrett, C. G. B.

W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McFarlane, W. L. Faust, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 573–586.

Holstein, T.

T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 83, (1951).
[CrossRef]

T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Maupin, R. T.

R. T. Young, C. S. Willett, R. T. Maupin, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2936, (1970).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R. A.

W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McFarlane, W. L. Faust, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 573–586.

MeFarlane, R. A.

C. K. N. Patel, R. A. MeFarlane, W. L. Faust, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 561–572.

Molnar, J. V.

A. V. Phelps, J. V. Molnar, Phys. Rev. 89, 1202 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. Circular467 (1949), Vol. 1.

Papoular, R.

R. Papoular, Electrical Phenomena in Gases (American Elsevier, New York, 1965), pp. 135–136.

Patel, C. K. N.

W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, R. A. MeFarlane, W. L. Faust, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 561–572.

C. K. N. Patel in Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1968), Vol. 2, pp. 1–190.

R. A. McFarlane, W. L. Faust, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 573–586.

Phelps, A. V.

A. V. Phelps, J. V. Molnar, Phys. Rev. 89, 1202 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Read, A. A.

S. A. Schleusener, A. A. Read, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 287 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. W.

E. E. Benton, W. W. Robertson, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 114 (1962).

Schleusener, S. A.

S. A. Schleusener, A. A. Read, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 287 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sears, F. W.

F. W. Sears, Thermodynamics, the Kinetic Theory of Gases, and Statistical Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1953), pp. 239–240.

Shtyrkov, E. O.

E. O. Shtyrkov, E. V. Subbes, Opt. Spectrosc. 21, 143 (1966).

Stafsudd, O. M.

A. B. Dauger, O. M. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE6, 572 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stentitskii, N. S.

A. R. Striganov, N. S. Stentitskii, Tables of Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1968), pp. 307–308.

Striganov, A. R.

A. R. Striganov, N. S. Stentitskii, Tables of Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1968), pp. 307–308.

Subbes, E. V.

E. O. Shtyrkov, E. V. Subbes, Opt. Spectrosc. 21, 143 (1966).

Twiddy, N. D.

E. Ellis, N. D. Twiddy, J. Phys. B2, 1366 (1969).

Von Engel, A.

A. Von Engel, Ionized Gases (ClarendonOxford, 1965), pp. 242–243.

Willett, C. S.

R. T. Young, C. S. Willett, R. T. Maupin, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2936, (1970).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 263–267.

Young, R. T.

R. T. Young, C. S. Willett, R. T. Maupin, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2936, (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2324 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Atomic Energy Levels (1)

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Nat. Bur. Stand. Circular467 (1949), Vol. 1.

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

E. E. Benton, W. W. Robertson, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 114 (1962).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. B. Dauger, O. M. Stafsudd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE6, 572 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. T. Young, C. S. Willett, R. T. Maupin, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2936, (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Young, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2324 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

E. Ellis, N. D. Twiddy, J. Phys. B2, 1366 (1969).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. O. Shtyrkov, E. V. Subbes, Opt. Spectrosc. 21, 143 (1966).

Phys. Rev. (4)

W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. 133A, 1476 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Phelps, J. V. Molnar, Phys. Rev. 89, 1202 (1953).
[CrossRef]

T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947).
[CrossRef]

T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 83, (1951).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. K. N. Patel, W. R. Bennett, W. L. Faust, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 102 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. A. Schleusener, A. A. Read, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 287 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

C. K. N. Patel, R. A. MeFarlane, W. L. Faust, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 561–572.

R. A. McFarlane, W. L. Faust, C. K. N. Patel, C. G. B. Garrett, Quantum Electronics 3 (Columbia U.P., New York, 1964), pp. 573–586.

A. Von Engel, Ionized Gases (ClarendonOxford, 1965), pp. 242–243.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 263–267.

R. Papoular, Electrical Phenomena in Gases (American Elsevier, New York, 1965), pp. 135–136.

F. W. Sears, Thermodynamics, the Kinetic Theory of Gases, and Statistical Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1953), pp. 239–240.

C. K. N. Patel in Lasers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1968), Vol. 2, pp. 1–190.

A. R. Striganov, N. S. Stentitskii, Tables of Spectral Lines of Neutral and Ionized Atoms (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1968), pp. 307–308.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single-pass gain measurement apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy levels and transitions for the cw neutral argon ir laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average cw gain for the argon 1.792-μm and 2.397-μm lines, with and without chlorine. The tube diameter is 6 mm, argon pressure is 1.7 Torr, helium pressure 19 Torr, and chlorine pressure 0.2 Torr.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulsed gain for the 1.792-μm line, 6-mm diam tube, 1.7 Torr argon, 19 Torr helium, 9-A peak current: (a) without chlorine; (b) with chlorine.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proposed pumping scheme of the argon–chlorine–helium laser.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Continuous Wave Neutral Argon Laser Linesa

Tables Icon

Table II Small—Signal Gain and Saturation Intensitya

Tables Icon

Table III Energy-Match Between Chlorine 4s and Argon 4s Levels

Tables Icon

Table IV Interaction Between Chlorine 5p and Argon 4s Levels

Tables Icon

Table V Effect of Chlorine on Argon 4s Level Populations

Equations (12)

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γ ( ν ) = γ 0 ( ν ) / [ 1 + ( I ν / I s ) ] .
γ ( ν ) = γ 0 ( ν ) / [ 1 + ( I ν / I s ) ] 1 2 .
γ ( ν ) = γ 0 ( ν ) / [ 1 + ( I / I s ) ] k 1 2 < k < 1.
I s = I / [ ( γ 0 / γ ) 1 / k - 1 ] .
k ( A + 2 ) / [ 2 ( A + 1 ) ] .
( HeAr ) + + e - H e + A r ( 3 d ) .
e x / ( X ) 1 2 = 1.2 × 10 7 ( c p R ) 2 ,
X = e V i / k T e ,
d N w + d w = ( 2 N / π 1 2 ) ( k T e ) - / 2 3 w 1 2 exp [ - ( w / k T e ) ] d w .
N with He N without He = w e ( T e He ) - / 2 3 w 1 2 exp { - [ w / ( k T e He ) ] } d w w e ( T e Ar ) - / 2 3 w 1 2 exp { - [ w / ( k T e Ar ) ] } d w .
N with He N without He exp ( w e k T e Ar - w e k T e He ) = 55.
Cl 2 + Ar * ( 4 s ) Cl + Cl * ( 4 s ) + Ar ± K . E . Cl + Ar * ( 4 s ) C l ( 5 p ) + Ar ± K . E .

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