Abstract

A survey is given of the standards used in photometry and spectroradiometry. After an introduction in Sec. I, the candela and lumen standards are discussed in Sec. II. Some problems related to heterochromatic photometry and the changes in the IPTS are mentioned in Secs. II.B and II.C, respectively. Section III deals with standards for spectroradiometry—the tungsten strip lamp, the anode of the carbon arc, and the high pressure xenon arc—and also with some irradiance standards. A comparison of photometric and radiometric standards is given in Sec. IV. It is concluded that with the present standards an accuracy of 1% is hardly obtainable.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE Publ. No. 17 (1970).
  2. C. R. 13th Conf. Gén Poids et Mesures1967–68 Ann. 2; Metrologia 5, 35 (1969).
  3. J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954); G. A. W. Rutgers, Encycl. of Physics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1958), Vol. 26, pp. 137–139.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. L. Sanders, Metrologia 3, 119 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. C. Jones, R. G. Berry, Metrologia 6, 81 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Förste, H. Willenberg, PTB-Mitt. 79, 153 (1969).
  7. J. S. Preston, Proc. Roy. Soc. A272, 133 (1963).
  8. R. Kröhnert, K. H. Sümmich, B. Fischer, Feingerätetechnik 16, 150 (1967).
  9. J. Krochmann, Optik 32, 205 (1970).
  10. Principles of light measurements, Table 10, CIE Publ. No. 18 (E1.2)1970.
  11. J. S. Preston, Lighting Res. Technol. 2, 248 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. D. Larrabee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 619 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Schurer, Optik 28, 44 (1968/69); Optik 28, 400 (1968/69).
  15. L. N. Latyev, V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, E. N. Shestako, High Temperature 7, 610 (1969).
  16. K. Schurer, Appl. Opt. 7, 461 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Schulz, Ann. Phys. 1, 95 (1947); Elektronische Vorgänge in Gasen und Festkörpern (Karlsruhe, 1968), p. 298.
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. A. Baum, L. Dunkelman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 782 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Larché, H. Schirmer, Naturwiss. 39, 376 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. ter Heerdt, J. C. J. van Zelst, Phys. Lab. Utrecht private comm.
  21. K. Schurer, J. Stoelhorst, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 952 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Klein, Appl. Opt. 7, 677 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. U. Kopec, Ann. Phys. 7/12, 209 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Wende, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 473 (1966).
  25. H. Magdeburg, B. Wende, PTB-Mitt. 74, 431 (1964).
  26. T. J. Quinn, C. R. Barber, Metrologia 3, 19 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. B. Fussell, Appl. Opt. 6, 101 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. W. E. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 9, 1410 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Wouda, Dissertation, Utrecht (1935).
  31. C. R. Barber, J. Sci. Instrum. 23, 238 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Kunz, VDI—Berichte No. 112, 37 (1966).

1970 (5)

International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE Publ. No. 17 (1970).

O. C. Jones, R. G. Berry, Metrologia 6, 81 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Krochmann, Optik 32, 205 (1970).

Principles of light measurements, Table 10, CIE Publ. No. 18 (E1.2)1970.

W. E. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 9, 1410 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (3)

J. S. Preston, Lighting Res. Technol. 2, 248 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Förste, H. Willenberg, PTB-Mitt. 79, 153 (1969).

L. N. Latyev, V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, E. N. Shestako, High Temperature 7, 610 (1969).

1968 (2)

1967 (5)

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, W. B. Fussell, Appl. Opt. 6, 101 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schurer, J. Stoelhorst, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 952 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Sanders, Metrologia 3, 119 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Kröhnert, K. H. Sümmich, B. Fischer, Feingerätetechnik 16, 150 (1967).

T. J. Quinn, C. R. Barber, Metrologia 3, 19 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

B. Wende, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 473 (1966).

H. Kunz, VDI—Berichte No. 112, 37 (1966).

1964 (1)

H. Magdeburg, B. Wende, PTB-Mitt. 74, 431 (1964).

1963 (3)

J. S. Preston, Proc. Roy. Soc. A272, 133 (1963).

R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
[CrossRef]

U. Kopec, Ann. Phys. 7/12, 209 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

1954 (2)

J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954); G. A. W. Rutgers, Encycl. of Physics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1958), Vol. 26, pp. 137–139.
[CrossRef]

J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

K. Larché, H. Schirmer, Naturwiss. 39, 376 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

1947 (1)

P. Schulz, Ann. Phys. 1, 95 (1947); Elektronische Vorgänge in Gasen und Festkörpern (Karlsruhe, 1968), p. 298.
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

C. R. Barber, J. Sci. Instrum. 23, 238 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Barber, C. R.

T. J. Quinn, C. R. Barber, Metrologia 3, 19 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Barber, J. Sci. Instrum. 23, 238 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Baum, W. A.

Berry, R. G.

O. C. Jones, R. G. Berry, Metrologia 6, 81 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chekhovskoi, V. Ya.

L. N. Latyev, V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, E. N. Shestako, High Temperature 7, 610 (1969).

de Vos, J. C.

J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954); G. A. W. Rutgers, Encycl. of Physics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1958), Vol. 26, pp. 137–139.
[CrossRef]

Dunkelman, L.

Fischer, B.

R. Kröhnert, K. H. Sümmich, B. Fischer, Feingerätetechnik 16, 150 (1967).

Förste, D.

D. Förste, H. Willenberg, PTB-Mitt. 79, 153 (1969).

Fussell, W. B.

Jackson, J. K.

Jones, O. C.

O. C. Jones, R. G. Berry, Metrologia 6, 81 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Klein, L.

Kopec, U.

U. Kopec, Ann. Phys. 7/12, 209 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Krochmann, J.

J. Krochmann, Optik 32, 205 (1970).

Kröhnert, R.

R. Kröhnert, K. H. Sümmich, B. Fischer, Feingerätetechnik 16, 150 (1967).

Kunz, H.

H. Kunz, VDI—Berichte No. 112, 37 (1966).

Larché, K.

K. Larché, H. Schirmer, Naturwiss. 39, 376 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, R. D.

Latyev, L. N.

L. N. Latyev, V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, E. N. Shestako, High Temperature 7, 610 (1969).

Magdeburg, H.

H. Magdeburg, B. Wende, PTB-Mitt. 74, 431 (1964).

Preston, J. S.

J. S. Preston, Lighting Res. Technol. 2, 248 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Preston, Proc. Roy. Soc. A272, 133 (1963).

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, C. R. Barber, Metrologia 3, 19 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, Metrologia 3, 119 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, H.

K. Larché, H. Schirmer, Naturwiss. 39, 376 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W. E.

Schulz, P.

P. Schulz, Ann. Phys. 1, 95 (1947); Elektronische Vorgänge in Gasen und Festkörpern (Karlsruhe, 1968), p. 298.
[CrossRef]

Schurer, K.

K. Schurer, Optik 28, 44 (1968/69); Optik 28, 400 (1968/69).

K. Schurer, Appl. Opt. 7, 461 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schurer, J. Stoelhorst, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 952 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Shestako, E. N.

L. N. Latyev, V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, E. N. Shestako, High Temperature 7, 610 (1969).

Stair, R.

Stoelhorst, J.

K. Schurer, J. Stoelhorst, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 952 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sümmich, K. H.

R. Kröhnert, K. H. Sümmich, B. Fischer, Feingerätetechnik 16, 150 (1967).

ter Heerdt, J. A.

J. A. ter Heerdt, J. C. J. van Zelst, Phys. Lab. Utrecht private comm.

van Zelst, J. C. J.

J. A. ter Heerdt, J. C. J. van Zelst, Phys. Lab. Utrecht private comm.

Wende, B.

B. Wende, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 473 (1966).

H. Magdeburg, B. Wende, PTB-Mitt. 74, 431 (1964).

Willenberg, H.

D. Förste, H. Willenberg, PTB-Mitt. 79, 153 (1969).

Wouda, J.

J. Wouda, Dissertation, Utrecht (1935).

Ann. Phys. (2)

P. Schulz, Ann. Phys. 1, 95 (1947); Elektronische Vorgänge in Gasen und Festkörpern (Karlsruhe, 1968), p. 298.
[CrossRef]

U. Kopec, Ann. Phys. 7/12, 209 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Feingerätetechnik (1)

R. Kröhnert, K. H. Sümmich, B. Fischer, Feingerätetechnik 16, 150 (1967).

High Temperature (1)

L. N. Latyev, V. Ya. Chekhovskoi, E. N. Shestako, High Temperature 7, 610 (1969).

International Lighting Vocabulary (1)

International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE Publ. No. 17 (1970).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Sci. Instrum. (2)

K. Schurer, J. Stoelhorst, J. Sci. Instrum. 44, 952 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Barber, J. Sci. Instrum. 23, 238 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Lighting Res. Technol. (1)

J. S. Preston, Lighting Res. Technol. 2, 248 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (3)

C. L. Sanders, Metrologia 3, 119 (1967).
[CrossRef]

O. C. Jones, R. G. Berry, Metrologia 6, 81 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, C. R. Barber, Metrologia 3, 19 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Naturwiss. (1)

K. Larché, H. Schirmer, Naturwiss. 39, 376 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Optik (2)

K. Schurer, Optik 28, 44 (1968/69); Optik 28, 400 (1968/69).

J. Krochmann, Optik 32, 205 (1970).

Physica (2)

J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954); G. A. W. Rutgers, Encycl. of Physics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1958), Vol. 26, pp. 137–139.
[CrossRef]

J. C. de Vos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Principles of light measurements (1)

Principles of light measurements, Table 10, CIE Publ. No. 18 (E1.2)1970.

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

J. S. Preston, Proc. Roy. Soc. A272, 133 (1963).

PTB-Mitt. (2)

D. Förste, H. Willenberg, PTB-Mitt. 79, 153 (1969).

H. Magdeburg, B. Wende, PTB-Mitt. 74, 431 (1964).

VDI—Berichte (1)

H. Kunz, VDI—Berichte No. 112, 37 (1966).

Z. Angew. Phys. (1)

B. Wende, Z. Angew. Phys. 20, 473 (1966).

Other (3)

J. A. ter Heerdt, J. C. J. van Zelst, Phys. Lab. Utrecht private comm.

C. R. 13th Conf. Gén Poids et Mesures1967–68 Ann. 2; Metrologia 5, 35 (1969).

J. Wouda, Dissertation, Utrecht (1935).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative spectral sensivity of (○) thermopile with liquid filter,7 (△) Weston cell with Viscor filter. Full line: CIE-standard observer [V(λ)].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of stabilized xenon arc lamp circuit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral radiance of the cathode spot of XBO-900 xenon arc lamp as a function of wavelength λ.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Relative Size of Flux Units Used by Six National Laboratories in the 1969 CIE Discharge Lamps Comparisons6

Tables Icon

Table II Some Temperatures Used in Photometry, Listed in the IPTS-48 and IPTS-68

Tables Icon

Table III Sensitivity of Weston Cell with Viscor Filter, Determined with Aid of Different Standardsa

Equations (2)

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L λ ( T ) = ( c 1 / π λ 5 ) [ exp ( c 2 / λ T - 1 ) ] - 1 W / ( m 3 ) ( sr ) ,
L λ ( , T ) = ( λ , T ) L b , λ ( λ , T ) .

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