Abstract

It is well known that dust clouds selectively absorb radiation in the 700–1300 cm−1 atmospheric window region. Studies have shown that dust clouds are composed of the same minerals as surface soils, although in different proportion. We have examined seventy soil samples from a number of locations around the world to determine their compositions and spectral characteristics. The results indicate that there are five major components which selectively absorb radiation in the 700–1300 cm−1 region. These are three clay minerals, silica, and calcium carbonate. Absorptivity coefficient spectra of representative soil samples are given.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Tanenbaum, Passive LOPAIR, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Memo. 321-7 (1969).
  2. G. B. Jacobus, L. R. Snowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 603 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollution Control Ass. 18, 754 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 74, 2681 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. M. Phillippi, “Optical Effects Underlying the Analytical Infrared Spectra of Solid Materials,” Tech. Rep. AFML-TR-67-437 (1968).
  6. D. F. Flanigan, H. P. DeLong, Spectral Absorption Characteristics of the Major Components of Dust Clouds, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Rep. 4430 (1970).
  7. J. M. Hunt, M. P. Wisherd, L. C. Bonham, Anal. Chem. 22, 1478 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.
  9. E. C. Dapples, Basic Geology for Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1959).
  10. B. Mason, Principles of Geochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1952).
  11. Ref. 9, p. 158.
  12. Ref. 10, p. 133.
  13. Ref. 9, p. 164.
  14. F. A. Miller, C. H. Wilkins, Anal. Chem. 24, 1253 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. B. Hoidale, A. J. Blanco, Pure Appl. Phys. 74, 151 (1969).
  16. K. E. Lawson, Infrared Absorption of Inorganic Substances (Reinhold, New York, 1961).
  17. W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).
  18. H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. D. Cadle, Particles in the Atmosphere and Space (Reinhold, New York, 1966).
  20. Ref. 9, p. 84.
  21. J. M. Hunt, D. S. Turner, Anal. Chem. 25, 1169 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. J. Launer, Amer. Minerol. 37, 764 (1952).
  23. Ref. 10, p. 128.
  24. Ref. 9, p. 163.
  25. Ref. 10, p. 149
  26. Ref. 9, p. 155.
  27. Ref. 9, p. 166.
  28. Ref. 9, p. 164.
  29. Ref. 9, p. 165.

1969 (1)

G. B. Hoidale, A. J. Blanco, Pure Appl. Phys. 74, 151 (1969).

1968 (1)

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollution Control Ass. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. B. Jacobus, L. R. Snowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 603 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

J. M. Hunt, D. S. Turner, Anal. Chem. 25, 1169 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (3)

P. J. Launer, Amer. Minerol. 37, 764 (1952).

F. A. Miller, C. H. Wilkins, Anal. Chem. 24, 1253 (1952).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 74, 2681 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

J. M. Hunt, M. P. Wisherd, L. C. Bonham, Anal. Chem. 22, 1478 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Adler, H. H.

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Barrett, W.

W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).

Bird, A.

W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).

Blanco, A. J.

G. B. Hoidale, A. J. Blanco, Pure Appl. Phys. 74, 151 (1969).

Bonham, L. C.

J. M. Hunt, M. P. Wisherd, L. C. Bonham, Anal. Chem. 22, 1478 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Bray, E. E.

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Cadle, R. D.

R. D. Cadle, Particles in the Atmosphere and Space (Reinhold, New York, 1966).

Cisco, D.

W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).

Dapples, E. C.

E. C. Dapples, Basic Geology for Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1959).

DeLong, H. P.

D. F. Flanigan, H. P. DeLong, Spectral Absorption Characteristics of the Major Components of Dust Clouds, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Rep. 4430 (1970).

Flanigan, D. F.

D. F. Flanigan, H. P. DeLong, Spectral Absorption Characteristics of the Major Components of Dust Clouds, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Rep. 4430 (1970).

Francis, N.

W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).

Fuller, T.

W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollution Control Ass. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hoidale, G. B.

G. B. Hoidale, A. J. Blanco, Pure Appl. Phys. 74, 151 (1969).

Hunt, J. M.

J. M. Hunt, D. S. Turner, Anal. Chem. 25, 1169 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hunt, M. P. Wisherd, L. C. Bonham, Anal. Chem. 22, 1478 (1950).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Jacobus, G. B.

G. B. Jacobus, L. R. Snowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 603 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. N.

R. N. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 74, 2681 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Keller, W. D.

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Kerr, P. F.

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Launer, P. J.

P. J. Launer, Amer. Minerol. 37, 764 (1952).

Lawson, K. E.

K. E. Lawson, Infrared Absorption of Inorganic Substances (Reinhold, New York, 1961).

Mason, B.

B. Mason, Principles of Geochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1952).

Matsushita, H.

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Miller, F. A.

F. A. Miller, C. H. Wilkins, Anal. Chem. 24, 1253 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Morreal, J. A.

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollution Control Ass. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phillippi, C. M.

C. M. Phillippi, “Optical Effects Underlying the Analytical Infrared Spectra of Solid Materials,” Tech. Rep. AFML-TR-67-437 (1968).

Pickett, E. E.

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Sakabe, H.

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Snowman, L. R.

G. B. Jacobus, L. R. Snowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 603 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, N. P.

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

Suzuki, Y.

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tanenbaum, D. L.

D. L. Tanenbaum, Passive LOPAIR, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Memo. 321-7 (1969).

Turner, D. S.

J. M. Hunt, D. S. Turner, Anal. Chem. 25, 1169 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, C. H.

F. A. Miller, C. H. Wilkins, Anal. Chem. 24, 1253 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wisherd, M. P.

J. M. Hunt, M. P. Wisherd, L. C. Bonham, Anal. Chem. 22, 1478 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Amer. Minerol. (1)

P. J. Launer, Amer. Minerol. 37, 764 (1952).

Anal. Chem. (3)

J. M. Hunt, M. P. Wisherd, L. C. Bonham, Anal. Chem. 22, 1478 (1950).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Miller, C. H. Wilkins, Anal. Chem. 24, 1253 (1952).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hunt, D. S. Turner, Anal. Chem. 25, 1169 (1953).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. B. Jacobus, L. R. Snowman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 603 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Health (1)

H. Sakabe, H. Matsushita, H. Hayashi, K. Nozaki, Y. Suzuki, Ind. Health 3, 126 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Pollution Control Ass. (1)

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollution Control Ass. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

R. N. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 74, 2681 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Phys. (1)

G. B. Hoidale, A. J. Blanco, Pure Appl. Phys. 74, 151 (1969).

Other (20)

K. E. Lawson, Infrared Absorption of Inorganic Substances (Reinhold, New York, 1961).

W. Barrett, A. Bird, D. Cisco, N. Francis, T. Fuller, “A Study of the Properties of Airbourne Dust at Fort Benning, Georgia,” Appendix I of Final Rep. to Contract DA18-108-CML-7159(A) (1966).

R. D. Cadle, Particles in the Atmosphere and Space (Reinhold, New York, 1966).

Ref. 9, p. 84.

D. L. Tanenbaum, Passive LOPAIR, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Memo. 321-7 (1969).

C. M. Phillippi, “Optical Effects Underlying the Analytical Infrared Spectra of Solid Materials,” Tech. Rep. AFML-TR-67-437 (1968).

D. F. Flanigan, H. P. DeLong, Spectral Absorption Characteristics of the Major Components of Dust Clouds, Edgewood Arsenal Tech. Rep. 4430 (1970).

H. H. Adler, P. F. Kerr, E. E. Bray, N. P. Stevens, J. M. Hunt, W. D. Keller, E. E. Pickett, Infrared Spectra of Reference Clay Minerals, Columbia University (1950), available from DDC to qualified requesters under AD825096.

E. C. Dapples, Basic Geology for Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1959).

B. Mason, Principles of Geochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1952).

Ref. 9, p. 158.

Ref. 10, p. 133.

Ref. 9, p. 164.

Ref. 10, p. 128.

Ref. 9, p. 163.

Ref. 10, p. 149

Ref. 9, p. 155.

Ref. 9, p. 166.

Ref. 9, p. 164.

Ref. 9, p. 165.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectroradiometer spectra of Freon gas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectroradiometer spectra of industrial kaolin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectroradiometer spectra of soil samples from Dugway Proving Ground, Utah: (a) road sample, (b) test grid sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of selected soil samples. Spectra are absorptivity vs wavenumber, where absorptivity was calculated from the Beer-Lambert relationship. Spectra were normalized by dividing each value of absorptivity by the peak value of the largest band.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of soil sample 54. This sample is almost pure calcium carbonate.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Peak Positions of the Infrared Bands of the Common Dust Minerals

Tables Icon

Table II Relative Concentrations of the Common Dust Minerals in the Soil Samples

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