Abstract

A system is described which modifies a scanning spectrometer for the visible and the near ir in a simple manner for double beam operation, particularly for use with small samples. The apparatus utilizes a split pupil of a collimator in conjunction with a rotating sector to separate the two partial beams. The operation of the modulator and the electronic circuitry are discussed in detail. The system offers the advantage of simple construction with a high degree of compensation of the optical path lengths, and particularly, with close proximity of probe and reference specimen.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. P. Bauman, Absorption Spectroscopy (J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962); R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-red Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968).
  2. See M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).
  3. B. Sandell, P. O. Nilsson, S. B. M. Hagström, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 1, 253 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1970 (1)

B. Sandell, P. O. Nilsson, S. B. M. Hagström, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 1, 253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, R. P.

R. P. Bauman, Absorption Spectroscopy (J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962); R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-red Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968).

Born, M.

See M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).

Hagström, S. B. M.

B. Sandell, P. O. Nilsson, S. B. M. Hagström, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 1, 253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, P. O.

B. Sandell, P. O. Nilsson, S. B. M. Hagström, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 1, 253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sandell, B.

B. Sandell, P. O. Nilsson, S. B. M. Hagström, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 1, 253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

See M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (1)

B. Sandell, P. O. Nilsson, S. B. M. Hagström, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 1, 253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. P. Bauman, Absorption Spectroscopy (J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962); R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-red Radiation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968).

See M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the optical path following the monochromator. The top insert demonstrates the principle of the illumination. M1—collimating mirror; M2—condenser mirror; M3, M4—plane mirrors; M5—spherical mirror; M6—ellipsoidal mirror; M7—plane mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The modulator: (a) diagram of the rotating sector and of the diaphragm; (b) oscilloscope trace of the detector signal with an absorbing specimen in one path.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the electronic circuitry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Recorder graph showing at the top, the transmission read-out without sample (100%-line), and below, the direct intensity I0 of one path.

Equations (2)

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f ( α ) = 2 r 2 ( sin 2 ϑ ) 1 2 ( sin ϑ + cos ϑ ) d ϑ = r 2 [ - ( z - z 2 ) 1 2 + 1 2 arcsin ( 2 z - 1 ) ] ϑ = α ϑ = π / 2 z = sin 2 ϑ             α = 2 π ν t
g ( t ) = I o for - π / 2 2 π ν t < π / 2 ( reference cycle ) ; I for π / 2 2 π ν t < 3 π / 2 ( sample cycle ) ; I / I 0 = T , sample transmittance .

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