Abstract

A technique is described for determining the relative efficiency with wavelength of a monochromator and detector system using single photon detection. The method described utilizes a commercially available standard of spectral irradiance and provides a convenient, straightforward, and accurate technique for making the calibration, which is applicable over large ranges of wavelength and detector sensitivity. The calibration procedure has been designed to fill a need in atomic spectroscopy for a convenient method of determining the relative intensities of spectral lines in measurements which require single photon detection.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. A. Hiltner, Ed., Astronomical Techniques (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), p. 23.
  2. E. H. Eberhardt, Appl. Opt. 6, 251 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. P. Rodman, H. J. Smith, Appl. Opt. 2, 181 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. Kohl, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, D. A. Chojnacki (to be published).
  5. W. R. Bennett, P. J. Kindlmann, Phys. Rev. 149, 38 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. S. Bickel, Appl. Opt. 6, 1039 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. A. Morton. Appl. Opt. 7, 1 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Heroux, Phys. Rev. 153, 157 (1966).
  9. G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. 175, 40 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).
  11. W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. L. Kohl, Phys. Lett. 24A, 125 (1967).
  13. J. L. Kohl, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toledo, Toledo, 1969;J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 335 (1970).
  14. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  15. An alternative approach is to use a standard of spectral radiance with a mirror and aperature system that spreads out the radiation of the lamp and selects a part of it to be used as a standard for extremely low values of spectral irradiance. [See R. Stair, W. B. Fussell, W. E. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 4, 85 (1965).]
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. C. Hammer, E. T. Arakawa, R.D. Birkhoff, Appl. Opt. 3, 79 (1964)
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. A. B. Gardiner, J. J. Merrill, W. R. Pendleton, D. J. Baker, Appl. Opt. 8, 799 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. A. B. Gardiner, J. J. Merrill, W. R. Pendleton, D. J. Baker, Appl. Opt. 8, 799 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

1967

J. L. Kohl, Phys. Lett. 24A, 125 (1967).

E. H. Eberhardt, Appl. Opt. 6, 251 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Bickel, Appl. Opt. 6, 1039 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

W. R. Bennett, P. J. Kindlmann, Phys. Rev. 149, 38 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Heroux, Phys. Rev. 153, 157 (1966).

1965

1964

1963

Arakawa, E. T.

Baker, D. J.

Bashkin, S.

H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).

Bennett, W. R.

W. R. Bennett, P. J. Kindlmann, Phys. Rev. 149, 38 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Berry, H. G.

H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel, Appl. Opt. 6, 1039 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).

Birkhoff, R.D.

Bridges, J. M.

W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chojnacki, D. A.

J. L. Kohl, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, D. A. Chojnacki (to be published).

Curtis, L. J.

J. L. Kohl, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, D. A. Chojnacki (to be published).

Eberhardt, E. H.

Fussell, W. B.

Gardiner, H. A. B.

Hammer, D. C.

Heroux, L.

L. Heroux, Phys. Rev. 153, 157 (1966).

Jackson, J. K.

Kellelier, D. E.

W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kindlmann, P. J.

W. R. Bennett, P. J. Kindlmann, Phys. Rev. 149, 38 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, J. L.

J. L. Kohl, Phys. Lett. 24A, 125 (1967).

J. L. Kohl, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toledo, Toledo, 1969;J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 335 (1970).

J. L. Kohl, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, D. A. Chojnacki (to be published).

Kornblith, R. L.

W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, G. M.

G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. 175, 40 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Martinson, I.

H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).

Merrill, J. J.

Morton, G. A.

Pendleton, W. R.

Rodman, J. P.

Schectman, R. M.

J. L. Kohl, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, D. A. Chojnacki (to be published).

H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).

Schneider, W. E.

Smith, H. J.

Stair, R.

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

W. L. Wiese, J. M. Bridges, R. L. Kornblith, D. E. Kellelier, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 1206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett.

J. L. Kohl, Phys. Lett. 24A, 125 (1967).

Phys. Rev.

L. Heroux, Phys. Rev. 153, 157 (1966).

G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. 175, 40 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, P. J. Kindlmann, Phys. Rev. 149, 38 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. A. Hiltner, Ed., Astronomical Techniques (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962), p. 23.

J. L. Kohl, L. J. Curtis, R. M. Schectman, D. A. Chojnacki (to be published).

H. G. Berry, R. M. Schectman, I. Martinson, W. S. Bickel, S. Bashkin (to be published).

J. L. Kohl, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toledo, Toledo, 1969;J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 335 (1970).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Exploded view perspective of the experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the electronic circuitry used for the calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the neutral density filter configuration.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M λ = E λ d λ ( F λ I λ + I λ ) ,
I λ = 1 2 T λ R λ G , I λ = 1 2 T λ R λ G ,
E λ = M λ 1 2 R λ d λ ( F λ T λ + T λ ) G .
Eff ( λ ) = ( 1 + F λ ) ( E λ / 2 ) ,
Eff ( λ ) = ( 1 + F λ ) M λ R λ d λ ( F λ T λ + T λ ) G .
R R λ = Eff ( λ ) / Eff ( λ 0 ) .

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