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References

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  1. J. Lechner, Westinghouse Defense & Space Center, Baltimore. Md.; private communication.
  2. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications, New York1954).
  3. C. Cox, W. Munk, Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Univ. Calif., 6, 401 (1956).
  4. A. H. Schooley, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 44, 37 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kinsman, Wind Waves (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1965).

1956 (1)

C. Cox, W. Munk, Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Univ. Calif., 6, 401 (1956).

1954 (1)

Cox, C.

C. Cox, W. Munk, Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Univ. Calif., 6, 401 (1956).

Kinsman, B.

B. Kinsman, Wind Waves (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1965).

Lechner, J.

J. Lechner, Westinghouse Defense & Space Center, Baltimore. Md.; private communication.

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications, New York1954).

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Univ. Calif., 6, 401 (1956).

Schooley, A. H.

Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Univ. Calif. (1)

C. Cox, W. Munk, Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography, Univ. Calif., 6, 401 (1956).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (3)

B. Kinsman, Wind Waves (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1965).

J. Lechner, Westinghouse Defense & Space Center, Baltimore. Md.; private communication.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications, New York1954).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the coordinate system showing the coordinate axes; the facet normal; the local zenith, and the directions of reflection and incidence. I = incidence vector R = reflection vector n = facet normal x,y,z = coordinate axes. Note: For 90°D (appearing twice in this figure) read 90° − D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sky portions reflected to an observer on the ocean surface, looking at the horizon.

Equations (6)

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R = { sin 2 z cos a - sin 2 θ sin 2 a sin 2 z } X + { sin 2 a sin θ sin 2 z + sin a cos θ sin 2 z } Y + { cos 2 z [ cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ cos 2 a ] + sin 2 θ sin 2 a } Z .
sin A = ± sin E 2 cos 2 z ( sin 2 2 z - sin 2 E 1 2 ) .
W ( z , a ) = tan ( z ) cos ( a ) { 0.02 + 0.98 [ 1 - cos ( a ) sin ( z ) ] 5 } 1 π ( 2 π σ 2 ) 1 2 exp [ - tan 2 ( z ) 2 σ 2 ] .
D ( E ) = 1 / ( 40 σ 4 ) { 2 σ 2 E + E 2 } exp [ - E 2 / ( 8 σ 2 ) ] .
E max = 3.3 σ ,
E average = 3.52 σ .

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