Abstract

For background reflectances taken equal to, or slightly lower than, the specimen reflectances, the Munsell-value, V, and the CIE 1964, W*, scales are found to be essentially linear with a power formulation for lightness previously shown to accord with lightness-spacing data for a wide variety of specimen and background reflectances. Adjustments required to make the Munsell-value function accord precisely with the power formulation for this background condition are all less than 0.2 of a Munsell-value step between 1/ and 9/. The power formulation is used to construct a table to show in Munsell terms the influence of background reflectance on perceived lightness for all combinations of specimen and background reflectance including Takasaki crispening for specimen reflectance approaching that of the background.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. CIE Proc. 1963, Vienna (Paris, Bureau Central CIE, 1964), p. 113.
  2. J. H. Ladd, J. E. Pinney, Proc. IRE 43, 1137 (1955).
  3. S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 33, 385 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sato, R. Hioki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 349 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1963).
  6. S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 30, 617 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 504 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1963).
  9. D. B. Judd, ‘Palette,’ No. 29, (1968)/30, (1968)/31, (1969); Color Eng. 8, No. 2, 36 (1970).
  10. C. C. Semmelroth, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 1685 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. S. Stevens, J. C. Stevens, Harvard University Psychophysical Project Report PPR-246, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1960).

1970 (1)

C. C. Semmelroth, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 1685 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. Sato, R. Hioki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 349 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 504 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1963).

1955 (1)

J. H. Ladd, J. E. Pinney, Proc. IRE 43, 1137 (1955).

1943 (1)

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 33, 385 (1943).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 30, 617 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Hioki, R.

M. Sato, R. Hioki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 349 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, ‘Palette,’ No. 29, (1968)/30, (1968)/31, (1969); Color Eng. 8, No. 2, 36 (1970).

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 33, 385 (1943).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1963).

Kaneko, T.

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1963).

Ladd, J. H.

J. H. Ladd, J. E. Pinney, Proc. IRE 43, 1137 (1955).

Newhall, S. M.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 33, 385 (1943).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 30, 617 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Nickerson, D.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 33, 385 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Pinney, J. E.

J. H. Ladd, J. E. Pinney, Proc. IRE 43, 1137 (1955).

Sato, M.

M. Sato, R. Hioki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 349 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Semmelroth, C. C.

C. C. Semmelroth, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 1685 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, J. C.

S. S. Stevens, J. C. Stevens, Harvard University Psychophysical Project Report PPR-246, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1960).

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, J. C. Stevens, Harvard University Psychophysical Project Report PPR-246, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1960).

Takasaki, H.

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 504 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1963).

‘Palette,’ No. 29 (1)

D. B. Judd, ‘Palette,’ No. 29, (1968)/30, (1968)/31, (1969); Color Eng. 8, No. 2, 36 (1970).

Acta Chromatica (1)

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (5)

C. C. Semmelroth, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 1685 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 30, 617 (1940).
[CrossRef]

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56, 504 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 33, 385 (1943).
[CrossRef]

M. Sato, R. Hioki, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 349 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

J. H. Ladd, J. E. Pinney, Proc. IRE 43, 1137 (1955).

Other (3)

CIE Proc. 1963, Vienna (Paris, Bureau Central CIE, 1964), p. 113.

D. B. Judd, G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science and Industry (Wiley, New York, 1963).

S. S. Stevens, J. C. Stevens, Harvard University Psychophysical Project Report PPR-246, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1960).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Difference in lightness (ΔL) as a function of background for specimens which differ from the background by +0.5ΔV and −0.5ΔV. Three curves are for ΔV’s of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference in lightness (ΔL) as a function of background for six pairs of specimens: Munsell values 1/ and 2/, 4.5/ and 5.5/, 8/ and 9/, 4/ and 6/, 3.5/ and 6.5/, and 3/ and 7/.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lightness (L) as a function of V for L calculated with the background set equal to each of seven increments of the specimen reflectance. These reflectance increments are those associated with VbVs of −1.0, −0.5, −0.1, 0.0, +0.01, and +0.10.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Correlation Coefficients (R) for (V) [Eq. (3)] and L [Eq. (4)] and Standard Errors of Estimate as a Percentage of the Mean for Each of Seven Values of VbVs

Tables Icon

Table II Values of Lightness Index Va from Eq. (5) for Specimens of Munsell Values 1/–9/ (Rows) on Backgrounds from 1/–9/(Columns)

Equations (5)

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W * = 25 Y 1 3 - 17 , 1 Y 100.
V = 2.468 Y 1 3 - 1.636
100 Y / Y MgO = 1.2219 V - 0.23111 V 2 + 0.23951 V 3 - 0.021009 V 4 + 0.0008404 V 5 .
L = ( I Y ) 0.4 + 0.65 [ I ( Y - B ) ] 0.2 , Y B , L = ( I Y ) 0.4 - 0.65 [ I ( B - Y ) ] 0.2 , B Y .
V est = 0.575421 L - 0.658646 = V a .

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