Abstract

A holomicrographic system capable of recording the dynamic microscopic events occurring in a living tissue has been developed. This paper discusses the system parameters, the basic configuration, and initial test results. The reconstructed real image from the hologram can be studied with a conventional microscope. The holographic system uses a collecting lens both in recording and in reconstructing. Test results reported include the dissolving of a gas bubble under increased pressure and the movement of polystyrene balls when ejected from a needle. Present resolution is greater than 3 μ, and object velocities greater than 25 mm sec−1 can be recorded.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 569 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Carter, P. D. Engeling, A. A. Dougal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 44 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Knox, Science 153, 989 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. F. van Ligten, H. Osterberg, Nature 211, 282 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. L. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 224 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. This procedure was suggested to us by an article by J. Upatnieks, A. vander Lugt, E. N. Leith, Appl. Opt. 5, 589 (1966). See also L. Toth, S. A. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 7 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. G. Buckles, Aerospace Med. 39, 1062 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  8. R. G. Buckles, M. E. Cox, Proc. SPIE 15, 111 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1123 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Jodon Engineering Assoc., Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  11. Kodak SO-243.
  12. Arriflex Corporation of America.
  13. TRW Instruments, Inc., Model 71A.
  14. Diffraction Limited, Inc. No. 22-863/22-864.

1969 (1)

W. L. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 224 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

R. G. Buckles, Aerospace Med. 39, 1062 (1968).
[PubMed]

R. G. Buckles, M. E. Cox, Proc. SPIE 15, 111 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (4)

This procedure was suggested to us by an article by J. Upatnieks, A. vander Lugt, E. N. Leith, Appl. Opt. 5, 589 (1966). See also L. Toth, S. A. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 7 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Carter, P. D. Engeling, A. A. Dougal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 44 (1966).
[CrossRef]

C. Knox, Science 153, 989 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. van Ligten, H. Osterberg, Nature 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 569 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1123 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. L.

W. L. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 224 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Buckles, R. G.

R. G. Buckles, Aerospace Med. 39, 1062 (1968).
[PubMed]

R. G. Buckles, M. E. Cox, Proc. SPIE 15, 111 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Carter, W. H.

W. H. Carter, P. D. Engeling, A. A. Dougal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 44 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cox, M. E.

R. G. Buckles, M. E. Cox, Proc. SPIE 15, 111 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dougal, A. A.

W. H. Carter, P. D. Engeling, A. A. Dougal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 44 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Engeling, P. D.

W. H. Carter, P. D. Engeling, A. A. Dougal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 44 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Knox, C.

C. Knox, Science 153, 989 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leith, E. N.

Osterberg, H.

R. F. van Ligten, H. Osterberg, Nature 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Upatnieks, J.

van Ligten, R. F.

R. F. van Ligten, H. Osterberg, Nature 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

vander Lugt, A.

Aerospace Med. (1)

R. G. Buckles, Aerospace Med. 39, 1062 (1968).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. H. Carter, P. D. Engeling, A. A. Dougal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 44 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (3)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 569 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 224 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 52, 1123 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. F. van Ligten, H. Osterberg, Nature 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. G. Buckles, M. E. Cox, Proc. SPIE 15, 111 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. Knox, Science 153, 989 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

Jodon Engineering Assoc., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Kodak SO-243.

Arriflex Corporation of America.

TRW Instruments, Inc., Model 71A.

Diffraction Limited, Inc. No. 22-863/22-864.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the cineholomicrographic system from the top.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrograph of the reconstructed real image of a standard test target without the lens in the reconstructing beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrograph of the reconstructed real image of a standard test target with the lens in the reconstructing beam. The resolution here is at least 200 lines mm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(f) Photomicrographs of the reconstructed real image of a single gas bubble attached to a 25-μ wire. The series of pictures shows the bubble as it dissolves under increased pressure. In Fig. 4(f) the bubble diameter is less than 25 μ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(c) Photomicrographs of the reconstructed real image of polystyrene spheres forced into a liquid cell through a syringe.

Tables (1)

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Table I Cineholomicrographic System Performance Specifications

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