Abstract

A continuously operating 7.18-μ laser oscillator has been built using optically pumped cesium vapor as the amplifying medium. A power of 50 μw is coupled out of the confocal resonator by means of a 45° BaF2 pickoff window. The measured intensity distribution is in good agreement with that derived from the Boyd-Gordon expression for the lowest-order mode.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Gould, unpublished proposal submitted to ARPA (Dec.1958).
  3. S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am.51, 477 (FA15) (1961) (paper to be published).
  4. H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.
  5. S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 415 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
  7. A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. G. Wagner, G. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1185 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press, New York, 1958), p. 125.

1961 (4)

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 415 (1961).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Wagner, G. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1185 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abella, I.

H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.

Bennett, W. R.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, G.

W. G. Wagner, G. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1185 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Currins, H. Z.

H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.

Gordon, J. P.

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Gould, G.

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 415 (1961).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am.51, 477 (FA15) (1961) (paper to be published).

G. Gould, unpublished proposal submitted to ARPA (Dec.1958).

Heavens, O. S.

H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.

Herriott, D. R.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S.

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 415 (1961).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am.51, 477 (FA15) (1961) (paper to be published).

Javan, A.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Knable, N.

H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.

Kopfermann, H.

H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press, New York, 1958), p. 125.

Rabinowitz, P.

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 415 (1961).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am.51, 477 (FA15) (1961) (paper to be published).

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.

Wagner, W. G.

W. G. Wagner, G. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1185 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bell System Tech. J. (1)

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. G. Wagner, G. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1185 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letters (2)

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 415 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press, New York, 1958), p. 125.

G. Gould, unpublished proposal submitted to ARPA (Dec.1958).

S. Jacobs, G. Gould, P. Rabinowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am.51, 477 (FA15) (1961) (paper to be published).

H. Z. Currins, I. Abella, O. S. Heavens, N. Knable, C. H. Townes, Advances in Quantum Electronics (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1961), p. 12.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cesium energy level diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of CW optically pumped Cs laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saturation of the 3888Å He-line intensity. Lamp parameters: 4 mm i.d. × 150 mm long; He pressure 4 Torr.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output beam intensity distribution; experimental uncertainty ±3%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

7.18 μ spectral distribution showing zero-field hyperfine components and axial modes.

Equations (5)

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6 S 1 / 2 + 8 P 1 / 2 + k T 6 S 1 / 2 + 8 P 3 / 2 .
I ( ω ) = e 2 k ω 2 b ( 1 + ξ 2 ) ,
T E 00 q = 0.015 % , T E 01 q = 0.6 % , T E 02 q = 10 % .
Δ ν osc 2 π h ν ( Δ ν c ) 2 P .
Δ ν osc 0.003 cps .

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