Abstract

The optical design itself is very often a small portion of the engineering effort on an optical instrument The optical engineer, when he sets about to design an optical system, must concern himself with problems in the fields of structures, associated electronic systems, materials, specifications, and test methods. This paper describes some examples of current activities in each of these fields. In addition, this paper considers the influences on design of temperature and mechanical shape, and presents pertinent examples of solutions to specific problems. Various methods are described for supporting refractive and reflective optical elements, both large and small, and the influence of the need for reduced weight is discussed. Requirements for satellite systems are also considered. Furthermore, the importance of electronic subsystems, as well as their interrelation with optical and structural design, is treated. Several examples of guidance systems are discussed as well as some problems of focusing. Sections are also included on performance specifications and quality control by the use of modulation transfer functions.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. B. Meinel, Telescopes, edited by G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960), Vol. I, Chap. 2, p. 25.
  2. J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 82, 339 (1940). See also, C. K. Seyfert, Sky and Telescope 13, 72 (1954); E. H. Linfoot, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 57, 209 (1945); F. Whipple, Sky and Telescope 8, 90 (1945); A. Offner, “Diffraction Limited Study,” ASTIA Document 246, 268, WADD Tech. Rept. 60-140 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Spitzer, Astron. J. 65, 242 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Stanworth, Physical Properties of Glass (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950); G. W. Morey, The Properties of Glass (Reinhold, New York, 1938); F. A. Molby, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 600 (1949); R. J. Spindler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 677 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. G. Sliusarev, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 211 (1959).
  6. O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 527 (1948).
  7. F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).
  8. F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 239 (1960).
  9. E. Ingelstam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1441 (1961).
  10. R. M. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 3, 201 (1959).
  11. R. M. Scott, R. V. Shack, “Predictions of Performance by Modulation Transfer Technique,” Stockholm meeting, ICO (1959).
  12. E. H. Linfoot, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 121, 115 (1960).
  13. A. Lohman, Optica Acta 6, 175 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. H. Kelley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 319 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 425 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. C. Higgins, R. C. Lamberts, R. N. Wolfe, Optica Acta 6, 272 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. P. Paris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 988 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. M. Benarie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 371 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. E. Macdonald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 715 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. E. Hufnagel, “Visual Detection and Recognition of Blurred Images on Grainy Film,” to be published (1962).
  21. G. Keller, Astron. J. 58, 113 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Keller, W. M. Protheroe, P. E. Barnhart, J. Galli, “Investigations of Stellar Scintillations and the Behavior of Telescopic Images,” ASTIA Document AFCRC TR 57-186, AD 117279 (1956).
  23. J. V. Ramsey, Optica Acta 6, 344 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Djurle, A. Back, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1029 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Maréchal, Optical Image Evaluation (Natl. Bur. Standards, Washington D.C., 1956), Circ. 526, Chap. 2, p. 9.
  26. A. Offner, J. L. Rayces, R. H. Bernard, in preparation.
  27. R. B. Mallinson, M. D. Rosenau, in preparation.
  28. J. M. Burch, Nature 17, 889 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Y. Mills, A. G. Little, Australian J. Phys. 6, 272 (1953).
    [CrossRef]

1961 (5)

1960 (4)

L. Spitzer, Astron. J. 65, 242 (1960).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).

F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 239 (1960).

E. H. Linfoot, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 121, 115 (1960).

1959 (6)

A. Lohman, Optica Acta 6, 175 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Higgins, R. C. Lamberts, R. N. Wolfe, Optica Acta 6, 272 (1959).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Sliusarev, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 211 (1959).

R. M. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 3, 201 (1959).

J. V. Ramsey, Optica Acta 6, 344 (1959).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 425 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

1953 (3)

J. M. Burch, Nature 17, 889 (1953).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Mills, A. G. Little, Australian J. Phys. 6, 272 (1953).
[CrossRef]

G. Keller, Astron. J. 58, 113 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 527 (1948).

1940 (1)

J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 82, 339 (1940). See also, C. K. Seyfert, Sky and Telescope 13, 72 (1954); E. H. Linfoot, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 57, 209 (1945); F. Whipple, Sky and Telescope 8, 90 (1945); A. Offner, “Diffraction Limited Study,” ASTIA Document 246, 268, WADD Tech. Rept. 60-140 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Back, A.

Baker, J. G.

J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 82, 339 (1940). See also, C. K. Seyfert, Sky and Telescope 13, 72 (1954); E. H. Linfoot, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 57, 209 (1945); F. Whipple, Sky and Telescope 8, 90 (1945); A. Offner, “Diffraction Limited Study,” ASTIA Document 246, 268, WADD Tech. Rept. 60-140 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Barnhart, P. E.

G. Keller, W. M. Protheroe, P. E. Barnhart, J. Galli, “Investigations of Stellar Scintillations and the Behavior of Telescopic Images,” ASTIA Document AFCRC TR 57-186, AD 117279 (1956).

Benarie, M. M.

Bernard, R. H.

A. Offner, J. L. Rayces, R. H. Bernard, in preparation.

Burch, J. M.

J. M. Burch, Nature 17, 889 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Djurle, E.

Galli, J.

G. Keller, W. M. Protheroe, P. E. Barnhart, J. Galli, “Investigations of Stellar Scintillations and the Behavior of Telescopic Images,” ASTIA Document AFCRC TR 57-186, AD 117279 (1956).

Higgins, G. C.

G. C. Higgins, R. C. Lamberts, R. N. Wolfe, Optica Acta 6, 272 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Hufnagel, R. E.

R. E. Hufnagel, “Visual Detection and Recognition of Blurred Images on Grainy Film,” to be published (1962).

Ingelstam, E.

E. Ingelstam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1441 (1961).

Keller, G.

G. Keller, Astron. J. 58, 113 (1953).
[CrossRef]

G. Keller, W. M. Protheroe, P. E. Barnhart, J. Galli, “Investigations of Stellar Scintillations and the Behavior of Telescopic Images,” ASTIA Document AFCRC TR 57-186, AD 117279 (1956).

Kelley, D. H.

Lamberts, R. C.

G. C. Higgins, R. C. Lamberts, R. N. Wolfe, Optica Acta 6, 272 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Lamberts, R. L.

Linfoot, E. H.

E. H. Linfoot, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 121, 115 (1960).

Little, A. G.

B. Y. Mills, A. G. Little, Australian J. Phys. 6, 272 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Lohman, A.

A. Lohman, Optica Acta 6, 175 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, D. E.

Mallinson, R. B.

R. B. Mallinson, M. D. Rosenau, in preparation.

Maréchal, A.

A. Maréchal, Optical Image Evaluation (Natl. Bur. Standards, Washington D.C., 1956), Circ. 526, Chap. 2, p. 9.

Meinel, A. B.

A. B. Meinel, Telescopes, edited by G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960), Vol. I, Chap. 2, p. 25.

Mills, B. Y.

B. Y. Mills, A. G. Little, Australian J. Phys. 6, 272 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Offner, A.

A. Offner, J. L. Rayces, R. H. Bernard, in preparation.

Paris, D. P.

Perrin, F. H.

F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).

F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 239 (1960).

Protheroe, W. M.

G. Keller, W. M. Protheroe, P. E. Barnhart, J. Galli, “Investigations of Stellar Scintillations and the Behavior of Telescopic Images,” ASTIA Document AFCRC TR 57-186, AD 117279 (1956).

Ramsey, J. V.

J. V. Ramsey, Optica Acta 6, 344 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rayces, J. L.

A. Offner, J. L. Rayces, R. H. Bernard, in preparation.

Rosenau, M. D.

R. B. Mallinson, M. D. Rosenau, in preparation.

Schade, O. H.

O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 527 (1948).

Scott, R. M.

R. M. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 3, 201 (1959).

R. M. Scott, R. V. Shack, “Predictions of Performance by Modulation Transfer Technique,” Stockholm meeting, ICO (1959).

Shack, R. V.

R. M. Scott, R. V. Shack, “Predictions of Performance by Modulation Transfer Technique,” Stockholm meeting, ICO (1959).

Sliusarev, S. G.

S. G. Sliusarev, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 211 (1959).

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, Astron. J. 65, 242 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Stanworth, J. E.

J. E. Stanworth, Physical Properties of Glass (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950); G. W. Morey, The Properties of Glass (Reinhold, New York, 1938); F. A. Molby, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 600 (1949); R. J. Spindler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R. N.

G. C. Higgins, R. C. Lamberts, R. N. Wolfe, Optica Acta 6, 272 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Astron. J. (2)

L. Spitzer, Astron. J. 65, 242 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Keller, Astron. J. 58, 113 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Australian J. Phys. (1)

B. Y. Mills, A. G. Little, Australian J. Phys. 6, 272 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. (2)

F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 151 (1960).

F. H. Perrin, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69, 239 (1960).

Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. (1)

E. H. Linfoot, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 121, 115 (1960).

Nature (1)

J. M. Burch, Nature 17, 889 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Optica Acta (3)

J. V. Ramsey, Optica Acta 6, 344 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohman, Optica Acta 6, 175 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Higgins, R. C. Lamberts, R. N. Wolfe, Optica Acta 6, 272 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Optics and Spectroscopy (1)

S. G. Sliusarev, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 211 (1959).

Phot. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. M. Scott, Phot. Sci. Eng. 3, 201 (1959).

Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. (1)

J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 82, 339 (1940). See also, C. K. Seyfert, Sky and Telescope 13, 72 (1954); E. H. Linfoot, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 57, 209 (1945); F. Whipple, Sky and Telescope 8, 90 (1945); A. Offner, “Diffraction Limited Study,” ASTIA Document 246, 268, WADD Tech. Rept. 60-140 (1960).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

O. H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 527 (1948).

Other (8)

A. B. Meinel, Telescopes, edited by G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960), Vol. I, Chap. 2, p. 25.

J. E. Stanworth, Physical Properties of Glass (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950); G. W. Morey, The Properties of Glass (Reinhold, New York, 1938); F. A. Molby, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 600 (1949); R. J. Spindler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Scott, R. V. Shack, “Predictions of Performance by Modulation Transfer Technique,” Stockholm meeting, ICO (1959).

G. Keller, W. M. Protheroe, P. E. Barnhart, J. Galli, “Investigations of Stellar Scintillations and the Behavior of Telescopic Images,” ASTIA Document AFCRC TR 57-186, AD 117279 (1956).

R. E. Hufnagel, “Visual Detection and Recognition of Blurred Images on Grainy Film,” to be published (1962).

A. Maréchal, Optical Image Evaluation (Natl. Bur. Standards, Washington D.C., 1956), Circ. 526, Chap. 2, p. 9.

A. Offner, J. L. Rayces, R. H. Bernard, in preparation.

R. B. Mallinson, M. D. Rosenau, in preparation.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The design of edge support for a 91-cm (36-in.) mirror for Stratoscope II.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A support for a 94-cm (37-in.) flat operated face downward. The support is completely in tension from the back of the mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the guidance system for Stratoscope II showing the axes transformations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A lens mount to provide for large differential expansion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The mounting for a large triplet whose optical components have widely different coefficients of expansion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A large lightweight mirror of fused quartz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A scatter plate interferogram of a 91-cm (36-in.) aperture parabolic mirror from the center of curvature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The use of Fizeau and scatter plate interferometry to separate variations of index from variations of mechanical thickness.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Physical Constants of Materials for Mirror Structures

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

= 3 m 16 F c ( m 2 1 ) δ .
l = m f p m + 1 .
δ = P l 3 8 E I .
P = ρ m k a 3 = ρ m k A 3 ( m + 1 ) 3 .
I = R 2 α , W = ρ s α l
I = R 2 W ρ s l
= 3 128 ρ m ρ s k E W · A 4 l 3 R 2 · m ( m 2 1 ) ( m + 1 ) 4 .
= K A 2 l 3 m = K A 2 f p 4 f t .
I max = 1 4 π 2 λ 2 Δ 2 ,
M ( k ) = exp ( 2 π λ ) 2 [ C ( 0 ) C ( F λ k ) ]

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