Abstract

A brief account is given of the spectroscopy of excitation processes in semiconductors, rare earth ions, transition metal ions, and actinide group ions in ionic crystals, from the standpoint of applying solid-state optical spectra to optical masers.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Program of the 1961 Spring Meeting of the Optical Society of America, p. 5.
  2. D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 116, 573 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 361 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Haynes, M. Lax, W. F. Flood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 6, 147 (1961).
  5. D. S. McClure, Solid State Physics edited by F. Seitz, D. Turnbull (Academic Press, New York, 1959), Vol. 9, p. 399.
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. H. Dieke, DSSP invited talk at the meeting of Am. Phys. Soc. held at Monterey, California, on 20–23 March, 1961.
  7. F. D. S. Butement, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 617 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. P. Feofilov, Zapiski Vsesoyuz. Mineral. Obschestva 85, 569 (1956); Opt. i Spektr. 1, 992 (1956).
  9. C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, D. L. Wood, Phys. Rev. (in press).
  10. Y. Tanabe, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 17 (1960). S. Sugano, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 66 (1960).
  11. Y. Tanabe, S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 9, 766 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. H. L. Pryce, W. A. Runciman, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 26, 34 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 880 (1958). S. Sugano, I. Tsujikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 899 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Sugano, A. L. Schawlow, F. Varsanyi, Phys. Rev. 120, 2045 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Deutschbein, Ann. Physik 14, 712, 729 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Huang, A. Rhys, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A204, 406 (1950). M. Lax, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1753 (1952). R. Kubo, Y. Toyozawa, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto) 13, 160 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Kuwabara, A. Misu, private communication (to be published).
  18. T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 564 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Varsanyi, D. L. Wood, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 544 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 557 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. T. Seaborg, The Actinide Elements, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954) IV-14A, Chap. 17, p. 750.
  22. G. H. Dieke, A. B. F. Duncanson, Spectroscopic Properties of Uranium Compounds, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949), Vol. III, p. 2.
  23. W. A. Runciman, Repts. Progr. Phys. 21, 30 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. N. Galkin, P. P. Feofilov, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 114, 745 (1957): Soviet Phys.-Doklady 2, 255 (1957)].
  28. Chr. K. Jørgensen, Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab., Mat.-fys. Medd. 29, No. 7, No. 11 (1955).
  29. J. C. Eisenstein, M. H. L. Pryce, Proc. Roy. Soc. A229, 20 (1955); Proc. Roy. Soc. A238, 31 (1956).

1961 (1)

J. R. Haynes, M. Lax, W. F. Flood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 6, 147 (1961).

1960 (5)

J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanabe, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 17 (1960). S. Sugano, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 66 (1960).

S. Sugano, A. L. Schawlow, F. Varsanyi, Phys. Rev. 120, 2045 (1960).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 557 (1960).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 564 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

F. Varsanyi, D. L. Wood, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 544 (1959).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 116, 573 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (3)

M. H. L. Pryce, W. A. Runciman, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 26, 34 (1958).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 880 (1958). S. Sugano, I. Tsujikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 899 (1958).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Runciman, Repts. Progr. Phys. 21, 30 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Galkin, P. P. Feofilov, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 114, 745 (1957): Soviet Phys.-Doklady 2, 255 (1957)].

1956 (3)

D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Feofilov, Zapiski Vsesoyuz. Mineral. Obschestva 85, 569 (1956); Opt. i Spektr. 1, 992 (1956).

1955 (2)

Chr. K. Jørgensen, Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab., Mat.-fys. Medd. 29, No. 7, No. 11 (1955).

J. C. Eisenstein, M. H. L. Pryce, Proc. Roy. Soc. A229, 20 (1955); Proc. Roy. Soc. A238, 31 (1956).

1954 (1)

Y. Tanabe, S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 9, 766 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

K. Huang, A. Rhys, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A204, 406 (1950). M. Lax, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1753 (1952). R. Kubo, Y. Toyozawa, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto) 13, 160 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

F. D. S. Butement, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 617 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

O. Deutschbein, Ann. Physik 14, 712, 729 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Butement, F. D. S.

F. D. S. Butement, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 617 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Conway, J. G.

J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. B.

J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Deutschbein, O.

O. Deutschbein, Ann. Physik 14, 712, 729 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, A. B. F. Duncanson, Spectroscopic Properties of Uranium Compounds, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949), Vol. III, p. 2.

G. H. Dieke, DSSP invited talk at the meeting of Am. Phys. Soc. held at Monterey, California, on 20–23 March, 1961.

Duncanson, A. B. F.

G. H. Dieke, A. B. F. Duncanson, Spectroscopic Properties of Uranium Compounds, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949), Vol. III, p. 2.

Eisenstein, J. C.

J. C. Eisenstein, M. H. L. Pryce, Proc. Roy. Soc. A229, 20 (1955); Proc. Roy. Soc. A238, 31 (1956).

Feofilov, P. P.

L. N. Galkin, P. P. Feofilov, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 114, 745 (1957): Soviet Phys.-Doklady 2, 255 (1957)].

P. P. Feofilov, Zapiski Vsesoyuz. Mineral. Obschestva 85, 569 (1956); Opt. i Spektr. 1, 992 (1956).

Flood, W. F.

J. R. Haynes, M. Lax, W. F. Flood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 6, 147 (1961).

Galkin, L. N.

L. N. Galkin, P. P. Feofilov, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 114, 745 (1957): Soviet Phys.-Doklady 2, 255 (1957)].

Garrett, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, D. L. Wood, Phys. Rev. (in press).

Gruen, D. M.

B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, J. R.

J. R. Haynes, M. Lax, W. F. Flood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 6, 147 (1961).

J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, J. J.

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 116, 573 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

K. Huang, A. Rhys, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A204, 406 (1950). M. Lax, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1753 (1952). R. Kubo, Y. Toyozawa, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto) 13, 160 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, Chr. K.

Chr. K. Jørgensen, Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab., Mat.-fys. Medd. 29, No. 7, No. 11 (1955).

Kaiser, W.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, D. L. Wood, Phys. Rev. (in press).

Kuwabara, G.

G. Kuwabara, A. Misu, private communication (to be published).

Lax, M.

J. R. Haynes, M. Lax, W. F. Flood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 6, 147 (1961).

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 564 (1960).
[CrossRef]

McClure, D. S.

D. S. McClure, Solid State Physics edited by F. Seitz, D. Turnbull (Academic Press, New York, 1959), Vol. 9, p. 399.
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. C.

D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. D.

B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Misu, A.

G. Kuwabara, A. Misu, private communication (to be published).

Pryce, M. H. L.

M. H. L. Pryce, W. A. Runciman, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 26, 34 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Eisenstein, M. H. L. Pryce, Proc. Roy. Soc. A229, 20 (1955); Proc. Roy. Soc. A238, 31 (1956).

Rhys, A.

K. Huang, A. Rhys, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A204, 406 (1950). M. Lax, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1753 (1952). R. Kubo, Y. Toyozawa, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto) 13, 160 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Runciman, W. A.

W. A. Runciman, Repts. Progr. Phys. 21, 30 (1958).
[CrossRef]

M. H. L. Pryce, W. A. Runciman, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 26, 34 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

S. Sugano, A. L. Schawlow, F. Varsanyi, Phys. Rev. 120, 2045 (1960).
[CrossRef]

F. Varsanyi, D. L. Wood, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 544 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Seaborg, G. T.

G. T. Seaborg, The Actinide Elements, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954) IV-14A, Chap. 17, p. 750.

Shalimoff, G. V.

J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, P. P.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 557 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, M. J.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 557 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, S.

S. Sugano, A. L. Schawlow, F. Varsanyi, Phys. Rev. 120, 2045 (1960).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 880 (1958). S. Sugano, I. Tsujikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 899 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanabe, S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 9, 766 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, Y.

Y. Tanabe, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 17 (1960). S. Sugano, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 66 (1960).

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 880 (1958). S. Sugano, I. Tsujikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 899 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanabe, S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 9, 766 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D. G.

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 116, 573 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Varsanyi, F.

S. Sugano, A. L. Schawlow, F. Varsanyi, Phys. Rev. 120, 2045 (1960).
[CrossRef]

F. Varsanyi, D. L. Wood, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 544 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Wallman, J. C.

J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

F. Varsanyi, D. L. Wood, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 544 (1959).
[CrossRef]

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, D. L. Wood, Phys. Rev. (in press).

Ann. Physik (1)

O. Deutschbein, Ann. Physik 14, 712, 729 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

J. R. Haynes, M. Lax, W. F. Flood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 6, 147 (1961).

Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. (1)

M. H. L. Pryce, W. A. Runciman, Discuss. Faraday Soc. No. 26, 34 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

L. N. Galkin, P. P. Feofilov, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 114, 745 (1957): Soviet Phys.-Doklady 2, 255 (1957)].

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. C. McLaughlin, B. B. Cunningham, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1115 (1956).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Cunningham, D. M. Gruen, J. G. Conway, R. D. McLaughlin, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1275 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Conway, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, G. V. Shalimoff, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 1416 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Japan (2)

Y. Tanabe, S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 9, 766 (1954).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 880 (1958). S. Sugano, I. Tsujikawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 13, 899 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab., Mat.-fys. Medd. (1)

Chr. K. Jørgensen, Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab., Mat.-fys. Medd. 29, No. 7, No. 11 (1955).

Phys. Rev. (2)

S. Sugano, A. L. Schawlow, F. Varsanyi, Phys. Rev. 120, 2045 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Thomas, J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 116, 573 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letters (4)

J. R. Haynes, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 564 (1960).
[CrossRef]

F. Varsanyi, D. L. Wood, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 544 (1959).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 557 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

J. C. Eisenstein, M. H. L. Pryce, Proc. Roy. Soc. A229, 20 (1955); Proc. Roy. Soc. A238, 31 (1956).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

K. Huang, A. Rhys, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A204, 406 (1950). M. Lax, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1753 (1952). R. Kubo, Y. Toyozawa, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto) 13, 160 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto) (1)

Y. Tanabe, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 17 (1960). S. Sugano, Progr. Theoret. Phys. (Kyoto), Suppl. No. 14, 66 (1960).

Repts. Progr. Phys. (1)

W. A. Runciman, Repts. Progr. Phys. 21, 30 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

F. D. S. Butement, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 617 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Zapiski Vsesoyuz. Mineral. Obschestva (1)

P. P. Feofilov, Zapiski Vsesoyuz. Mineral. Obschestva 85, 569 (1956); Opt. i Spektr. 1, 992 (1956).

Other (7)

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, D. L. Wood, Phys. Rev. (in press).

Program of the 1961 Spring Meeting of the Optical Society of America, p. 5.

D. S. McClure, Solid State Physics edited by F. Seitz, D. Turnbull (Academic Press, New York, 1959), Vol. 9, p. 399.
[CrossRef]

G. H. Dieke, DSSP invited talk at the meeting of Am. Phys. Soc. held at Monterey, California, on 20–23 March, 1961.

G. Kuwabara, A. Misu, private communication (to be published).

G. T. Seaborg, The Actinide Elements, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954) IV-14A, Chap. 17, p. 750.

G. H. Dieke, A. B. F. Duncanson, Spectroscopic Properties of Uranium Compounds, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949), Vol. III, p. 2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrometer response versus the energy of the photons for two silicon crystals: (1) A specimen containing a negligible amount of impurity, shown by the dashed trace. (2) A specimen containing 8 × 1016 cm−3 arsenic atoms, shown by the solid trace (Haynes3).

Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2(a)

The absorption spectrum of the KEu(WO4)2 crystal (D. L. Wood, unpublished).

Fig. 2(b)
Fig. 2(b)

The fluorescence spectrum of the KEu(WO4)2 crystal (D. L. Wood, unpublished).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The absorption spectrum of the CaF2:Sm2+ crystal (Garrett, et al.9). (b) The fluorescence spectrum of the CaF2:Sm2+ crystal (Garrett et al.9).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The absorption spectrum of the Al2O3:Cr3+ crystals (D. M. Dodd, unpublished) (b) The most conspicuous fluorescence lines, R1(14,421 cm−1) and R2(14,450 cm−1) of the Al2O3:Cr3+ crystals (D. L. Wood, unpublished).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The schematic energy diagram of Cr3+ in cubic field illustrated in one-dimensional configuration coordinate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A schematic energy diagram which shows activation and tunneling processes from the upper state. (After Kubo and Toyozawa.16)

Equations (1)

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[ γ exp ( 1 γ / 2 ) / 2 ] 0 / ћ ω ,

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