Abstract

The refractometer microscope is simultaneously a microscope and a critical angle refractometer. It enables the user both to observe the shape and to measure the refractive index of the component areas of a flat surface. A prototype has been built.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Dewhirst, M. J. Olney, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 167, 221 (1951).

1951 (1)

D. W. Dewhirst, M. J. Olney, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 167, 221 (1951).

Dewhirst, D. W.

D. W. Dewhirst, M. J. Olney, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 167, 221 (1951).

Olney, M. J.

D. W. Dewhirst, M. J. Olney, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 167, 221 (1951).

J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) (1)

D. W. Dewhirst, M. J. Olney, J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 167, 221 (1951).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General arrangement drawing. The instrument is shown with the Bertrand lens in use. Upon removal of components BL and SCO the image of the specimen surface falls upon IBPCFS. a—Amici sphere, c—condenser, h—hole stop, m—illuminating mirror, p—patch stop, PM—primary mirror of reflecting O.G., SM—secondary mirror of same, VIM—vertical illuminating mirror (unsilvered), BL—Bertrand lens, SCO—stop conjugate to specimen surface, IPCBFS—image plane conjugate to back focal surface. To save space in the drawing the microscope tube has been greatly foreshortened.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The back focal surface of an Amici sphere with refractive index 1.8. Included are the edges of permitted cones corresponding to various specimen refractive indices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Damp chamois leather viewed with the patch stop set somewhere between Ns = 1 and Ns = 1.333.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The same view as in Fig. 3 (except that the water boundaries have shifted a little; this is a change in the specimen, not a property of the optics) but with the stop set to Ns = 1.333.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bertrand lens view showing the back focal surface of the Amici sphere when the latter is observing damp chamois leather under conditions similar to those in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bertrand lens view when the specimen was part water and part CCl4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fraunhofer diffraction of the edge of the permitted cone produced by a patch of length L and refractive index Ns.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The properties of the Amici sphere used in drawing the shape of its back focal surface.

Equations (10)

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sin α = N s N 0 .
Δ = N 0 2 ( 1 sin 2 γ ) N 0 1 sin 2 γ 1 N 0 2 sin 2 γ ,
sin α = r r 2 + x 2 .
sin β = k sin α ,
d N s d α = N 0 cos α , δ N s = d N s d α δ α = N 0 cos α λ N 0 L cos α = λ L .
Δ D a cos 2 α / cos γ = Δ a N 0 2 cos γ ,
Δ ( N 0 2 cos 2 γ cos 2 α ) = D N 0 2 cos 2 γ,
D = N 0 cos γ + cos α , Δ = N 0 2 cos 2 γ N 0 cos γ cos α .
Δ = N 0 2 ( 1 sin 2 γ ) N 0 1 sin 2 γ 1 sin 2 α .
Δ = N 0 2 ( 1 sin 2 γ ) N 0 1 sin 2 γ 1 N 0 2 sin 2 γ .

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