Abstract

An instrument which is suitable for investigating the light scattering properties of macromolecules in solution in the angular range 20° to 160° is described. A null modulation method is used to measure the ratio of the intensity Iθ of the light scattered at an angle θ to the direction of the incident light to that (Iθ) incident on the scattering volume. This is accomplished by attenuating I0 until it equals Iθ, this condition being found by an electronic detector. The value of Iθ is known from a calibration experiment. Details are given of the optical arrangement, the detector, and the calibration and method of use of the apparatus. Adequate sensitivity, accuracy, and stability are demonstrated.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. M. Doty, B. H. Zimm, H. Mark, J. Chem. Phys. 13, 159 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. N. Tsvetkov, V. S. Skazka, Opt. i Spektr. 7(1959), Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 474 (1959).
  3. P. Debye, J. Phys. & Colloid Chem. 51, 18 (1947).
  4. P. P. Debye, J. Appl. Phys. 17, 392 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1099 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. A. Brice, M. Halwer, R. S. Speiser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 768 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Oster, Anal. Chem. 25, 1165 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. B. M’Ewen, M. I. Pratt, Nature and Structure of Collagen, J. T. Randall, ed. (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1953), p. 158.
  10. W. H. Aughey, F. J. Baum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 833 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. I. Pratt, Ph.D. Thesis, University of London (1955).
  12. K. A. Stacey, Light Scattering in Physical Chemistry (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1956).
  13. V. E. Eskin, Zhur. Tekh. Fiz. 28, 1459 (1958), Soviet. Phys.–Tech. Phys. 3, 1354 (1959).
  14. W. J. Hughes, P. Johnson, J. Sci. Instr. 35, 157 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 305 (1935); ibid. 28, 360 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. J. Baum, F. W. Billmeyer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 452 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. A. Kovalevskii, Pribory i Tekh. Ekspt. 3, 98 (1959), Instruments and Experimental Techniques 3, 444 (1959).
  18. H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 159 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).
  20. D. A. I. Goring, P. Johnson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 48, 367 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. J. Hermans, S. Levinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 460 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Cabannes, Y. Rocard, La Diffusion Moléculaire de le Lumière (Les Presses Universitaires de Paris, 1929).
  24. W. B. Dandliker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 6036 (1954).
    [CrossRef]

1961 (1)

1959 (2)

V. A. Kovalevskii, Pribory i Tekh. Ekspt. 3, 98 (1959), Instruments and Experimental Techniques 3, 444 (1959).

V. N. Tsvetkov, V. S. Skazka, Opt. i Spektr. 7(1959), Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 474 (1959).

1958 (2)

V. E. Eskin, Zhur. Tekh. Fiz. 28, 1459 (1958), Soviet. Phys.–Tech. Phys. 3, 1354 (1959).

W. J. Hughes, P. Johnson, J. Sci. Instr. 35, 157 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1954 (3)

W. H. Aughey, F. J. Baum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 833 (1954).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Dandliker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 6036 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

G. Oster, Anal. Chem. 25, 1165 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (3)

P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
[CrossRef]

D. A. I. Goring, P. Johnson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 48, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Jerrard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 159 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

1950 (1)

1949 (1)

C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).

1948 (1)

B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1099 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

P. Debye, J. Phys. & Colloid Chem. 51, 18 (1947).

1946 (1)

P. P. Debye, J. Appl. Phys. 17, 392 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

P. M. Doty, B. H. Zimm, H. Mark, J. Chem. Phys. 13, 159 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

Aughey, W. H.

Baum, F. J.

Billmeyer, F. W.

Bosworth, P.

P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Brice, B. A.

Cabannes, J.

J. Cabannes, Y. Rocard, La Diffusion Moléculaire de le Lumière (Les Presses Universitaires de Paris, 1929).

Dandliker, W. B.

W. B. Dandliker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 6036 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, J. Phys. & Colloid Chem. 51, 18 (1947).

Debye, P. P.

P. P. Debye, J. Appl. Phys. 17, 392 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Doty, P. M.

P. M. Doty, B. H. Zimm, H. Mark, J. Chem. Phys. 13, 159 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Eskin, V. E.

V. E. Eskin, Zhur. Tekh. Fiz. 28, 1459 (1958), Soviet. Phys.–Tech. Phys. 3, 1354 (1959).

Goring, D. A. I.

D. A. I. Goring, P. Johnson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 48, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Halwer, M.

Hardy, A. C.

Hermans, J. J.

Hughes, W. J.

W. J. Hughes, P. Johnson, J. Sci. Instr. 35, 157 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Jerrard, H. G.

Johnson, P.

W. J. Hughes, P. Johnson, J. Sci. Instr. 35, 157 (1958).
[CrossRef]

D. A. I. Goring, P. Johnson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 48, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Kovalevskii, V. A.

V. A. Kovalevskii, Pribory i Tekh. Ekspt. 3, 98 (1959), Instruments and Experimental Techniques 3, 444 (1959).

Levinson, S.

Long, D. A.

C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).

Lou, R. L. H.

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[CrossRef]

M’Ewen, M. B.

M. B. M’Ewen, M. I. Pratt, Nature and Structure of Collagen, J. T. Randall, ed. (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1953), p. 158.

Mark, H.

P. M. Doty, B. H. Zimm, H. Mark, J. Chem. Phys. 13, 159 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Maron, S. H.

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Masson, C. R.

P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H. W.

P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. H.

C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).

Oster, G.

G. Oster, Anal. Chem. 25, 1165 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Peaker, F. W.

P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, M. I.

M. B. M’Ewen, M. I. Pratt, Nature and Structure of Collagen, J. T. Randall, ed. (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1953), p. 158.

M. I. Pratt, Ph.D. Thesis, University of London (1955).

Rocard, Y.

J. Cabannes, Y. Rocard, La Diffusion Moléculaire de le Lumière (Les Presses Universitaires de Paris, 1929).

Skazka, V. S.

V. N. Tsvetkov, V. S. Skazka, Opt. i Spektr. 7(1959), Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 474 (1959).

Speiser, R. S.

Stacey, K. A.

K. A. Stacey, Light Scattering in Physical Chemistry (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1956).

Thompson, H. W.

C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).

Tsvetkov, V. N.

V. N. Tsvetkov, V. S. Skazka, Opt. i Spektr. 7(1959), Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 474 (1959).

Woodford, L. A.

C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).

Zimm, B. H.

B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1099 (1948).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Doty, B. H. Zimm, H. Mark, J. Chem. Phys. 13, 159 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

G. Oster, Anal. Chem. 25, 1165 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. B. Dandliker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 6036 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. P. Debye, J. Appl. Phys. 17, 392 (1946).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

B. H. Zimm, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1099 (1948).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Doty, B. H. Zimm, H. Mark, J. Chem. Phys. 13, 159 (1945).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Phys. & Colloid Chem. (1)

P. Debye, J. Phys. & Colloid Chem. 51, 18 (1947).

J. Polymer Sci. (2)

P. Bosworth, C. R. Masson, H. W. Melville, F. W. Peaker, J. Polymer Sci. 9, 565 (1952).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Maron, R. L. H. Lou, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 29 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instr. (1)

W. J. Hughes, P. Johnson, J. Sci. Instr. 35, 157 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Opt. i Spektr. (1)

V. N. Tsvetkov, V. S. Skazka, Opt. i Spektr. 7(1959), Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 474 (1959).

Pribory i Tekh. Ekspt. (1)

V. A. Kovalevskii, Pribory i Tekh. Ekspt. 3, 98 (1959), Instruments and Experimental Techniques 3, 444 (1959).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

C. H. Miller, D. A. Long, L. A. Woodford, H. W. Thompson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 62A, 401 (1949).

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

D. A. I. Goring, P. Johnson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 48, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Zhur. Tekh. Fiz. (1)

V. E. Eskin, Zhur. Tekh. Fiz. 28, 1459 (1958), Soviet. Phys.–Tech. Phys. 3, 1354 (1959).

Other (4)

M. I. Pratt, Ph.D. Thesis, University of London (1955).

K. A. Stacey, Light Scattering in Physical Chemistry (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1956).

M. B. M’Ewen, M. I. Pratt, Nature and Structure of Collagen, J. T. Randall, ed. (Butterworths Scientific Publications, London, 1953), p. 158.

J. Cabannes, Y. Rocard, La Diffusion Moléculaire de le Lumière (Les Presses Universitaires de Paris, 1929).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of apparatus. N—neutral filter, P—rotatable polarizer, P1 and P2—fixed polarizers, P3—rotatory polaroid disk, PM—photomultiplier, Q—quarter-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrammatic view of apparatus. S—mercury-arc lamp, L1—condensing lens, H—circular diaphragm, F1—heat absorbing filter, L2—collimating lens, a, b, c—rectangular slits, F2—interference filter, SC—light-scattering cell. The scattered light collecting system, which rotates about an axis through SC, includes lenses L3, L4, and L5, diaphragms A1 and A2, reflecting prisms R1, R2, and R3, quarter-wave plate Q, and polaroid P2. The transmitted light collecting system, which is fixed, has a neutral filter N, polaroid P rotatable in divided circle, fixed polaroid P1, reflecting plates G1, G2, and G3, and lens L6. P3 is rotating polaroid driven by motor M; C—commutator, PM—photomultiplier. Polarizers can be placed on the optical bench at P and on end of collecting system at P for depolarization measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of apparatus. At the center is seen the circular scale on top of the box below the photomultiplier housing. The transmitted light collector is on the right of the housing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of electrical system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The light-scattering cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light scattering of bovine plasma albumin at 4358 Å and 20° C centrifuged and measured in water.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = ( I 1 + I 2 ) 2 + ( I 1 I 2 ) 2 cos 2 ω t .
f ( ϕ ) = cos 2 ϕ { 1 [ 1 cos 4 ( i r ) ] sin 2 ϕ } .
f ( ϕ ) = cos 2 ϕ ( 1 0.169 sin 2 ϕ ) .
τ = 2.303 D l = 16 π 3 R 90 = 16 π 3 Cf ( ϕ )
K c ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) R θ = 1 M w + 2 B c ,
K = 2 π 2 n 2 ( n / c ) 2 λ 4 N A ,

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