Abstract

Properties of the hydrogen maser and details of the apparatus are discussed. Experimental work is described which yields a new value for the hyperfine separation of hydrogen in its ground state. The result is

Δν=1,420,405,762±4cps.

This result is based on a value of the hyperfine separation in Cs133 which is taken to be

Δν(Cs133)=9,192,631,840cps.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 2821 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 361 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 123, 530 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Kleppner, H. M. Goldenberg, N. F. Ramsey (to be published).
  5. H. M. Goldenberg, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard, 1960 (unpublished).
  6. K. Shimoda, T. C. Wang, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 102, 1308 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Carroll Alley (to be published).
  9. L. W. Anderson, F. M. Pipkin, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 69 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Christenson, D. R. Hamilton, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 356 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. H. Lambert, F. M. Pipkin, private communication.
  12. P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 100, 1188 (1955).
    [CrossRef]

1961 (1)

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 123, 530 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Anderson, F. M. Pipkin, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 69 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

R. L. Christenson, D. R. Hamilton, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1956 (2)

K. Shimoda, T. C. Wang, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 102, 1308 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 100, 1188 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

J. B. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 2821 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Alley, Carroll

Carroll Alley (to be published).

Anderson, L. W.

L. W. Anderson, F. M. Pipkin, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 69 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, R. L.

R. L. Christenson, D. R. Hamilton, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R. H.

J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, H. M.

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 123, 530 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. Kleppner, H. M. Goldenberg, N. F. Ramsey (to be published).

H. M. Goldenberg, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard, 1960 (unpublished).

Gordon, J. B.

J. B. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 2821 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. R.

R. L. Christenson, D. R. Hamilton, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Kleppner, D.

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 123, 530 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. Kleppner, H. M. Goldenberg, N. F. Ramsey (to be published).

Kusch, P.

P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 100, 1188 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, R. H.

R. H. Lambert, F. M. Pipkin, private communication.

Pipkin, F. M.

L. W. Anderson, F. M. Pipkin, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 69 (1960).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lambert, F. M. Pipkin, private communication.

Ramsey, N. F.

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 123, 530 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. Kleppner, H. M. Goldenberg, N. F. Ramsey (to be published).

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, T. C. Wang, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 102, 1308 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

K. Shimoda, T. C. Wang, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 102, 1308 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 2821 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

K. Shimoda, T. C. Wang, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 102, 1308 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Wittke, J. P.

J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Zeiger, H. J.

J. B. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 2821 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (5)

J. B. Gordon, H. J. Zeiger, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 95, 2821 (1954).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 123, 530 (1961).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimoda, T. C. Wang, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 102, 1308 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956).
[CrossRef]

P. Kusch, Phys. Rev. 100, 1188 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letters (2)

L. W. Anderson, F. M. Pipkin, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 69 (1960).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Goldenberg, D. Kleppner, N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 361 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

R. L. Christenson, D. R. Hamilton, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. H. Lambert, F. M. Pipkin, private communication.

Carroll Alley (to be published).

D. Kleppner, H. M. Goldenberg, N. F. Ramsey (to be published).

H. M. Goldenberg, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard, 1960 (unpublished).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy levels of hydrogen in its ground state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of hydrogen maser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency measuring system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results with two different size bulbs (uncorrected for second order Doppler shift).

Equations (12)

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Δ ν = 1,420,405,762 ± 4 cps .
Δ ν ( C s 133 ) = 9,192,631,840 cps .
I th = h 8 π 2 V Q 1 η ( μ 0 T r ) 2
δ ν 2 1 / 2 ν = 1 2 π 2 1 Q l k T P t .
T se = 10 9 / N sec .
T H = 3 / ( 4 γ 2 H i 2 τ ) .
δ ν = φ / ( 2 π t 0 ) .
δ ν D = + 1 2 V 2 c 2 Δ ν = + 3 k T 2 m c 2 Δ ν = ( 1.4 × 10 13 T ) Δ ν
16.5 cm diam bulb Δ ν = 1,420,405,761.78 ± 0.7 cps . 11.4 cm diam bulb Δ ν = 1,420,405,762.11 ± 0.4 cps .
Δ ν = 1,420,405,762 ± 4 cps .
Δ ν = 1,420,405,726 ± 30 cps ,
Δ ν = 1,420,405,748 ± 7 cps ,

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