Abstract

In the last ten years a great deal of work has been done on the experimental investigation of atomic energy levels using magnetic resonance techniques. This paper concerns itself primarily with a review of some of the studies of atomic vapors in connection with level structures, on the one hand, and the mutual interactions of light oscillating magnetic fields and the effects of collisions, on the other.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Majorana, Nuovo cimento 9, 43 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 51, 652 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Purcell, H. Torrey, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bloch, Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946); F. Bloch, W. W. Hansen, M. Packard, Phys. Rev. 70, 474 (1946); ibid. 69, 680 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 70, 986 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Zavoisky, J. Phys. (U.S.S.R.) 9, 211, 245, 447 (1945); ibid. 10, 197 (1946).
  8. A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. E. Lamb, R. C. Retherford, Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947); ibid. 79, 949 (1950); ibid. 81, 222 (1951); ibid. 86, 1014 (1952). For a review see W. E. Lamb, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 14, 23 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Kastler, J. phys. radium 11, 255 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1924 (1957); J. C. Pebay-Peyroula, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 57 (1957); ibid. 245, 840 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. H. L. Pryce, Phys. Rev. 77, 136 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 76, 833 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 229, 1213 (1949).
  18. J. Brossel, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Bitter, J. Brossel, Research Lab. Electronics, Tech. Rept. No. 176, M.I.T., Sept.12, 1950.
  20. R. H. Kohler, Phys. Rev. 121, 1104 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Excellent reviews are to be found, for example, in G. W. Series, Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen (Oxford Univ. Press, 1957). Also, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 22, 280 (1959); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press, New York, 1958). Also papers on double resonance in alkali vapors: H. Kopfermann, Naturwissenschaften 24, 620 (1958); H. Bucka, H. Kopfermann, A. Minor, Z. Physik 161, 123 (1961); H. Bucka, H. J. Schüsster, Ann. Physik 7, 225 (1961). Introductory papers on optical excitation of atomic beams are: I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 87, 379 (1952); M. L. Perl, I. I. Rabi, B. Senitzky, Phys. Rev. 98, 611 (1955). Resonances in excited states, excited by electron impact, J. C. Peybay-Peyroula, J. phys. radium 20, 669, 721 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Sagalyn, A. Melissinos, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. G. Schweitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 692 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. V. Stager, R. H. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 5, 274 (1960).
  26. A. C. Melissinos, S. P. Davis, Phys. Rev. 115, 130 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Hirsch, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, M.I.T., August1960. (To be published in J. Opt. Soc. Am.)
  29. C. V. Stager, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, M.I.T., September1960; see also Quarterly Progress Report No. 59, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., Oct.15, 1960, p. 53.
  30. P. C. Brot, J. phys. radium (in press); Quarterly Progress Report No. 59, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., Oct.15, 1960, p. 54.
  31. F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Brossel, A. Kastler, J. Winter, J. phys. radium 13, 668 (1952); W. B. Hawkins, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 91, 1008 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).
  34. W. Walter, Quarterly Progress Report No. 62, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., July15, 1961.
  35. H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1487 (1957); ibid. 109, 381 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, Phys. Rev. 107, 1559 (1957); ibid. 109, 219 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 252, 394 (1961).
  38. F. Bloch, A. Siegert, Phys. Rev. 57, 522 (1940); N. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Section V-3.
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. E. Blamont, Ann. phys. 2, 551 (1957).
  40. J-P. Barrat, J. phys. radium 20, 541, 633, 657 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  41. V. von Keussler, Ann. Physik 87, 793 (1927); T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947); ibid. 76, 1257 (1949); ibid. 82, 567 (1951); ibid. 83, 21, 1159 (1951); ibid. 85, 985 (1952); N. Rollet, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 242, 240 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. Mayer, Ann. Physik 9, 273 (1931); G. Breit, E. Teller, Astrophys. J. 91, 215 (1940); J. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 813 (1947); V. Hughes, L. Grabner, Phys. Rev. 79, 829 (1950).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. N. Ramsay, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Chap. V.
  44. J. M. Winter, Ann. phys. 4, 49 (1959), with extensive references to prior work.
  45. J. Margerie, J. Brossel, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 241, 373 (1955).
  46. J. E. Blamont, J. Winter, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 332 (1957).
  47. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Thesis, École Normale Supérieure, Paris, 1956. See also J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956) and E. H. Purcell, G. B. Field, Astrophys. J. 124, 542 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  48. W. Franzen, A. G. Emslie, Phys. Rev. 108, 1453 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  49. H. G. Robinson, E. S. Ensberg, H. G. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. 2, 3, 9 (1958).
  50. W. Franzen, Phys. Rev. 115, 850 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  51. B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).
  52. C. Kenty, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1314 (1950).
    [CrossRef]

1961 (5)

R. H. Kohler, Phys. Rev. 121, 1104 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Schweitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 692 (1961).
[CrossRef]

B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 252, 394 (1961).

B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).

1960 (1)

C. V. Stager, R. H. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 5, 274 (1960).

1959 (6)

J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J-P. Barrat, J. phys. radium 20, 541, 633, 657 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. Franzen, Phys. Rev. 115, 850 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Winter, Ann. phys. 4, 49 (1959), with extensive references to prior work.

1958 (3)

H. G. Robinson, E. S. Ensberg, H. G. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. 2, 3, 9 (1958).

P. Sagalyn, A. Melissinos, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (4)

J. E. Blamont, Ann. phys. 2, 551 (1957).

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, Phys. Rev. 107, 1559 (1957); ibid. 109, 219 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Blamont, J. Winter, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 332 (1957).

W. Franzen, A. G. Emslie, Phys. Rev. 108, 1453 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (2)

H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1487 (1957); ibid. 109, 381 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1924 (1957); J. C. Pebay-Peyroula, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 57 (1957); ibid. 245, 840 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1955 (2)

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Margerie, J. Brossel, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 241, 373 (1955).

1954 (2)

F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Melissinos, S. P. Davis, Phys. Rev. 115, 130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (2)

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, J. Winter, J. phys. radium 13, 668 (1952); W. B. Hawkins, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 91, 1008 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1950 (3)

A. Kastler, J. phys. radium 11, 255 (1950).
[CrossRef]

M. H. L. Pryce, Phys. Rev. 77, 136 (1950).
[CrossRef]

C. Kenty, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1314 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1949 (2)

F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 76, 833 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 229, 1213 (1949).

1947 (1)

W. E. Lamb, R. C. Retherford, Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947); ibid. 79, 949 (1950); ibid. 81, 222 (1951); ibid. 86, 1014 (1952). For a review see W. E. Lamb, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 14, 23 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1946 (3)

E. M. Purcell, H. Torrey, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

F. Bloch, Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946); F. Bloch, W. W. Hansen, M. Packard, Phys. Rev. 70, 474 (1946); ibid. 69, 680 (1946).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 70, 986 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

E. Zavoisky, J. Phys. (U.S.S.R.) 9, 211, 245, 447 (1945); ibid. 10, 197 (1946).

1940 (1)

F. Bloch, A. Siegert, Phys. Rev. 57, 522 (1940); N. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Section V-3.
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 51, 652 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

E. Majorana, Nuovo cimento 9, 43 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

M. Mayer, Ann. Physik 9, 273 (1931); G. Breit, E. Teller, Astrophys. J. 91, 215 (1940); J. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 813 (1947); V. Hughes, L. Grabner, Phys. Rev. 79, 829 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1927 (1)

V. von Keussler, Ann. Physik 87, 793 (1927); T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947); ibid. 76, 1257 (1949); ibid. 82, 567 (1951); ibid. 83, 21, 1159 (1951); ibid. 85, 985 (1952); N. Rollet, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 242, 240 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Barrat, J-P.

J-P. Barrat, J. phys. radium 20, 541, 633, 657 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bell, W. E.

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, Phys. Rev. 107, 1559 (1957); ibid. 109, 219 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Bitter, F.

P. Sagalyn, A. Melissinos, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 76, 833 (1949).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, J. Brossel, Research Lab. Electronics, Tech. Rept. No. 176, M.I.T., Sept.12, 1950.

Blamont, J. E.

J. E. Blamont, Ann. phys. 2, 551 (1957).

J. E. Blamont, J. Winter, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 332 (1957).

Bloch, F.

F. Bloch, Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946); F. Bloch, W. W. Hansen, M. Packard, Phys. Rev. 70, 474 (1946); ibid. 69, 680 (1946).
[CrossRef]

F. Bloch, A. Siegert, Phys. Rev. 57, 522 (1940); N. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Section V-3.
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 70, 986 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, A. L.

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, Phys. Rev. 107, 1559 (1957); ibid. 109, 219 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Brossel, J.

J. Margerie, J. Brossel, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 241, 373 (1955).

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, J. Winter, J. phys. radium 13, 668 (1952); W. B. Hawkins, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 91, 1008 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 229, 1213 (1949).

F. Bitter, J. Brossel, Research Lab. Electronics, Tech. Rept. No. 176, M.I.T., Sept.12, 1950.

Brot, P. C.

P. C. Brot, J. phys. radium (in press); Quarterly Progress Report No. 59, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., Oct.15, 1960, p. 54.

Cagnac, B.

B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).

B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 252, 394 (1961).

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Thesis, École Normale Supérieure, Paris, 1956. See also J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956) and E. H. Purcell, G. B. Field, Astrophys. J. 124, 542 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Colgrove, F. D.

F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. P.

A. C. Melissinos, S. P. Davis, Phys. Rev. 115, 130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Dehmelt, H. G.

H. G. Robinson, E. S. Ensberg, H. G. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. 2, 3, 9 (1958).

H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1487 (1957); ibid. 109, 381 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1924 (1957); J. C. Pebay-Peyroula, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 57 (1957); ibid. 245, 840 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, J. N.

J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Emslie, A. G.

W. Franzen, A. G. Emslie, Phys. Rev. 108, 1453 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ensberg, E. S.

H. G. Robinson, E. S. Ensberg, H. G. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. 2, 3, 9 (1958).

Forrester, A. T.

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Fox, W. N.

J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Franken, P. A.

F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, W.

W. Franzen, Phys. Rev. 115, 850 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. Franzen, A. G. Emslie, Phys. Rev. 108, 1453 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Gudmundsen, R. A.

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, H.

H. Hirsch, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, M.I.T., August1960. (To be published in J. Opt. Soc. Am.)

Johnson, P. O.

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Kastler, A.

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, J. Winter, J. phys. radium 13, 668 (1952); W. B. Hawkins, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 91, 1008 (1953).
[CrossRef]

A. Kastler, J. phys. radium 11, 255 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 229, 1213 (1949).

Kenty, C.

C. Kenty, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1314 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R. H.

R. H. Kohler, Phys. Rev. 121, 1104 (1961).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Stager, R. H. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 5, 274 (1960).

Kusch, P.

I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
[CrossRef]

Lamb, W. E.

W. E. Lamb, R. C. Retherford, Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947); ibid. 79, 949 (1950); ibid. 81, 222 (1951); ibid. 86, 1014 (1952). For a review see W. E. Lamb, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 14, 23 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R. R.

F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Majorana, E.

E. Majorana, Nuovo cimento 9, 43 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Margerie, J.

J. Margerie, J. Brossel, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 241, 373 (1955).

Mayer, M.

M. Mayer, Ann. Physik 9, 273 (1931); G. Breit, E. Teller, Astrophys. J. 91, 215 (1940); J. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 813 (1947); V. Hughes, L. Grabner, Phys. Rev. 79, 829 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melissinos, A.

P. Sagalyn, A. Melissinos, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Melissinos, A. C.

A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Melissinos, S. P. Davis, Phys. Rev. 115, 130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Millman, S. S.

I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
[CrossRef]

Plotkin, H.

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Pound, R. V.

E. M. Purcell, H. Torrey, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 70, 986 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Pryce, M. H. L.

M. H. L. Pryce, Phys. Rev. 77, 136 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 70, 986 (1946).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell, H. Torrey, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Rabi, I. I.

I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
[CrossRef]

I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 51, 652 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Ramsay, N.

N. Ramsay, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Chap. V.

Retherford, R. C.

W. E. Lamb, R. C. Retherford, Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947); ibid. 79, 949 (1950); ibid. 81, 222 (1951); ibid. 86, 1014 (1952). For a review see W. E. Lamb, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 14, 23 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Richter, B.

F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

H. G. Robinson, E. S. Ensberg, H. G. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. 2, 3, 9 (1958).

Sagalyn, P.

P. Sagalyn, A. Melissinos, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Sands, R. H.

F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, W. G.

Series, G. W.

J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Excellent reviews are to be found, for example, in G. W. Series, Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen (Oxford Univ. Press, 1957). Also, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 22, 280 (1959); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press, New York, 1958). Also papers on double resonance in alkali vapors: H. Kopfermann, Naturwissenschaften 24, 620 (1958); H. Bucka, H. Kopfermann, A. Minor, Z. Physik 161, 123 (1961); H. Bucka, H. J. Schüsster, Ann. Physik 7, 225 (1961). Introductory papers on optical excitation of atomic beams are: I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 87, 379 (1952); M. L. Perl, I. I. Rabi, B. Senitzky, Phys. Rev. 98, 611 (1955). Resonances in excited states, excited by electron impact, J. C. Peybay-Peyroula, J. phys. radium 20, 669, 721 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Siegert, A.

F. Bloch, A. Siegert, Phys. Rev. 57, 522 (1940); N. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Section V-3.
[CrossRef]

Stager, C. V.

C. V. Stager, R. H. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 5, 274 (1960).

C. V. Stager, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, M.I.T., September1960; see also Quarterly Progress Report No. 59, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., Oct.15, 1960, p. 53.

Taylor, M. J.

J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Teviotdale, A.

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Torrey, H.

E. M. Purcell, H. Torrey, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

von Keussler, V.

V. von Keussler, Ann. Physik 87, 793 (1927); T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947); ibid. 76, 1257 (1949); ibid. 82, 567 (1951); ibid. 83, 21, 1159 (1951); ibid. 85, 985 (1952); N. Rollet, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 242, 240 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Walter, W.

W. Walter, Quarterly Progress Report No. 62, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., July15, 1961.

Winter, J.

J. E. Blamont, J. Winter, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 332 (1957).

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, J. Winter, J. phys. radium 13, 668 (1952); W. B. Hawkins, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 91, 1008 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Winter, J. M.

J. M. Winter, Ann. phys. 4, 49 (1959), with extensive references to prior work.

Young, J. E. R.

F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, J. R.

I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
[CrossRef]

Zavoisky, E.

E. Zavoisky, J. Phys. (U.S.S.R.) 9, 211, 245, 447 (1945); ibid. 10, 197 (1946).

Ann. phys. (4)

B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).

J. E. Blamont, Ann. phys. 2, 551 (1957).

J. M. Winter, Ann. phys. 4, 49 (1959), with extensive references to prior work.

B. Cagnac, Ann. phys. 6, 467 (1961).

Ann. Physik (2)

V. von Keussler, Ann. Physik 87, 793 (1927); T. Holstein, Phys. Rev. 72, 1212 (1947); ibid. 76, 1257 (1949); ibid. 82, 567 (1951); ibid. 83, 21, 1159 (1951); ibid. 85, 985 (1952); N. Rollet, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 242, 240 (1956).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, Ann. Physik 9, 273 (1931); G. Breit, E. Teller, Astrophys. J. 91, 215 (1940); J. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 813 (1947); V. Hughes, L. Grabner, Phys. Rev. 79, 829 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. (1)

H. G. Robinson, E. S. Ensberg, H. G. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. 2, 3, 9 (1958).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II (1)

C. V. Stager, R. H. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 5, 274 (1960).

Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) (4)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 252, 394 (1961).

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 229, 1213 (1949).

J. Margerie, J. Brossel, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 241, 373 (1955).

J. E. Blamont, J. Winter, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 332 (1957).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Kenty, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1314 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. (U.S.S.R.) (1)

E. Zavoisky, J. Phys. (U.S.S.R.) 9, 211, 245, 447 (1945); ibid. 10, 197 (1946).

J. phys. radium (3)

A. Kastler, J. phys. radium 11, 255 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J-P. Barrat, J. phys. radium 20, 541, 633, 657 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, A. Kastler, J. Winter, J. phys. radium 13, 668 (1952); W. B. Hawkins, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 91, 1008 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo cimento (1)

E. Majorana, Nuovo cimento 9, 43 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (23)

I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 51, 652 (1937).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Rabi, S. S. Millman, P. Kusch, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 53, 318, 495 (1938); ibid. 55, 526 (1939); J. M. B. Kellogg, I. I. Rabi, N. F. Ramsey, J. R. Zacharias, Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939);
[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell, H. Torrey, R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 69, 37 (1946).
[CrossRef]

F. Bloch, Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946); F. Bloch, W. W. Hansen, M. Packard, Phys. Rev. 70, 474 (1946); ibid. 69, 680 (1946).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell, R. V. Pound, N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 70, 986 (1946).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Lamb, R. C. Retherford, Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947); ibid. 79, 949 (1950); ibid. 81, 222 (1951); ibid. 86, 1014 (1952). For a review see W. E. Lamb, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 14, 23 (1951).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, H. Plotkin, B. Richter, A. Teviotdale, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 91, 421 (1953).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, S. P. Davis, B. Richter, J. E. R. Young, Phys. Rev. 96, 1531 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1924 (1957); J. C. Pebay-Peyroula, J. Brossel, A. Kastler, Compt. rend. acad. sci. (Paris) 244, 57 (1957); ibid. 245, 840 (1957).
[CrossRef]

M. H. L. Pryce, Phys. Rev. 77, 136 (1950).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 76, 833 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Brossel, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Kohler, Phys. Rev. 121, 1104 (1961).
[CrossRef]

F. Bloch, A. Siegert, Phys. Rev. 57, 522 (1940); N. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Section V-3.
[CrossRef]

H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. 103, 1125 (1956); ibid. 105, 1487 (1957); ibid. 109, 381 (1958).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, Phys. Rev. 107, 1559 (1957); ibid. 109, 219 (1958).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Melissinos, S. P. Davis, Phys. Rev. 115, 130 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

P. Sagalyn, A. Melissinos, F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
[CrossRef]

W. Franzen, A. G. Emslie, Phys. Rev. 108, 1453 (1957).
[CrossRef]

W. Franzen, Phys. Rev. 115, 850 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

F. D. Colgrove, P. A. Franken, R. R. Lewis, R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. Letters 3, 420 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

J. N. Dodd, W. N. Fox, G. W. Series, M. J. Taylor, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 789 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Excellent reviews are to be found, for example, in G. W. Series, Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen (Oxford Univ. Press, 1957). Also, Repts. Progr. in Phys. 22, 280 (1959); H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press, New York, 1958). Also papers on double resonance in alkali vapors: H. Kopfermann, Naturwissenschaften 24, 620 (1958); H. Bucka, H. Kopfermann, A. Minor, Z. Physik 161, 123 (1961); H. Bucka, H. J. Schüsster, Ann. Physik 7, 225 (1961). Introductory papers on optical excitation of atomic beams are: I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 87, 379 (1952); M. L. Perl, I. I. Rabi, B. Senitzky, Phys. Rev. 98, 611 (1955). Resonances in excited states, excited by electron impact, J. C. Peybay-Peyroula, J. phys. radium 20, 669, 721 (1959).
[CrossRef]

F. Bitter, J. Brossel, Research Lab. Electronics, Tech. Rept. No. 176, M.I.T., Sept.12, 1950.

W. Walter, Quarterly Progress Report No. 62, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., July15, 1961.

H. Hirsch, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, M.I.T., August1960. (To be published in J. Opt. Soc. Am.)

C. V. Stager, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, M.I.T., September1960; see also Quarterly Progress Report No. 59, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., Oct.15, 1960, p. 53.

P. C. Brot, J. phys. radium (in press); Quarterly Progress Report No. 59, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T., Oct.15, 1960, p. 54.

N. Ramsay, Molecular Beams (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956), Chap. V.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Thesis, École Normale Supérieure, Paris, 1956. See also J. P. Wittke, R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 103, 620 (1956) and E. H. Purcell, G. B. Field, Astrophys. J. 124, 542 (1956).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The fine structure of the n = 2 level of hydrogen investigated by Lamb and Retherford, and others.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The Zeeman effect of the 3P1 state of mercury in an isotope having no nuclear spin. The splitting is approximately 2 Mc/gauss. For spectroscopic considerations, this may be put into the more convenient form, approximately 630 10−3 cm−1 for 10,000 gauss

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The hyperfine structure of λ = 2536 A of natural mercury as plotted by magneto-optic scanning.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical pumping to an intermediate level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical pumping in Hg199 having a nuclear spin of ½ by the absorption of circularly polarized light and excitation to the F = ½ hyperfine level of the 3P1 state. In the subsequent decay some of the atoms are transferred, or “pumped,” into a different m-level.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Double-resonance curves observed in the isotopes of mercury with even mass number, involving magnetic resonance in the excited 3P1 state.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Summary of available data on the structure of the 2536 A resonance line emitted by various isotopes of mercury. The separations of the various frequencies from the Hg198 frequency are given in units of 10−3 cm−1. The frequency differences between the radiations from a single atom are given in megacycles per second. The ratios of the nuclear moments to the proton moment are frequency ratios, and are not corrected for the diamagnetic shielding caused by the outer electrons. The data for Hg197* are calculated from the hyperfine structure in the 3P1 state. All other moments are obtained by optical pumping in the ground state.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

“Coherence time” of imprisoned mercury resonance radiation in a 2.5-cm3 cell as a function of N, the number of atoms/cm3 of the isotope in which resonance occurs. The points are experimentally measured inverse line widths, and the curve is based on Barrat’s theoretical predictions. ○—Hg198 resonance radiation in a cell containing natural Hg; ×—Hg202 resonance radiation in a cell containing natural Hg; +—Hg202 resonance radiation in a cell containing Hg202 only.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Possible multiple quantum transitions between adjacent levels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Multiple quantum transitions found between the Zeeman levels of the ground state of sodium.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Intermediate levels in multiple quantum transitions.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

A diagram after Kenty,52 showing the principal processes occurring in a fluorescent lamp plasma-mercury vapor plus a few mm of rare gas, usually argon. Straight arrows are calculated collisions of the first and second kinds. Wavy arrows are measured radiation outputs (except for the heavy arrows). One full arrow, either straight or wavy, represents 3 × 1016 transitions per second per centimeter of length. Decimals are fractions of full arrows.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H 100 W a 1 gauss .
μ 199 = ( 0.1782706 ± 3 × 1 0 ) μ H μ 201 = ( 0.1974197 ± 12 × 1 0 ) μ H .
μ 197 = ( 0.18585 ± 7 × 1 0 5 ) μ H .

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