Abstract

Marine sunphotometer measurements collected aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment—Asia (ACE-Asia) are used to evaluate the ability of complementary instrumentation to obtain the best possible estimates of aerosol optical thickness and Ångstrom exponent from ships at sea. A wide range of aerosol conditions, including clean maritime conditions and highly polluted coastal environments, were encountered during the ACE-Asia cruise. The results of this study suggest that shipboard hand-held sunphotometers and fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) yield similar measurements and uncertainties if proper measurement protocols are used and if the instruments are properly calibrated. The automated FRSR has significantly better temporal resolution (2 min) than the hand-held sunphotometers when standard measurement protocols are used, so it more faithfully represents the variability of the local aerosol structure in polluted regions. Conversely, results suggest that the hand-held sunphotometers may perform better in clean, maritime air masses for unknown reasons. Results also show that the statistical distribution of the Ångstrom exponent measurements is different when the distributions from hand-held sunphotometers are compared with those from the FRSR and that the differences may arise from a combination of factors.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, information content, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 335–362 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, “In Situ aerosol optical thickness collected by the SIMBIOS program(1997–2000): Protocols, and data QC and analysis,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 11–21.

2004

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, R. M. Reynolds, “The accuracy of marine shadow-band measurements of aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 397–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Deschamps, B. Fougnie, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “SIMBAD: a field radiometer for satellite ocean-color validation,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4055–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, “Sun-pointing-error correction for sea deployment of the MICROTOPS II handheld sun photometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 20, 767–771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Ignatov, “Sensitivity and information content of aerosol retrievals from AVHRR: radiometric factors,” Appl. Opt. 46, 991–1011 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, M. Wang, “Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748–757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, J. Zhang, “Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing from MODIS and CERES observations over the oceans,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1859–1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. N. Porter, M. A. Miller, C. Motell, C. Pietras, “Use of hand-held sun photometers for measurements of aerosol optical thickness at sea,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 765–774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Reynolds, M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, “A fast-rotating, spectral shadowband radiometer for marine applications,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 200–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, information content, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 335–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. A. Wetzel, L. L. Stowe, “Satellite-observed patterns in stratus microphysics, aerosol optical thickness, and shortwave radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,287–31,299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. B. Husar, J. M. Prospero, L. L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1964

A. Ångström, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 64–75 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961

A. K. Ångström, “Techniques for determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 2, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S. E.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 64–75 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A. K.

A. K. Ångström, “Techniques for determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 2, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Baker, A.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R.

G. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, “In Situ aerosol optical thickness collected by the SIMBIOS program(1997–2000): Protocols, and data QC and analysis,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 11–21.

Bartholomew, M. J.

M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, R. M. Reynolds, “The accuracy of marine shadow-band measurements of aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 397–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Reynolds, M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, “A fast-rotating, spectral shadowband radiometer for marine applications,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 200–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bates, D.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrico, C. M.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, P. K.

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, M. Wang, “Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748–757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. D.

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, M. Wang, “Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748–757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

S. A. Christopher, J. Zhang, “Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing from MODIS and CERES observations over the oceans,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1859–1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

Draxler, R. R.

R. R. Draxler, “Hybrid sigle-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectories (HY-SPLIT): Version 3.0,” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD., 1992).

Eck, T.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G.

G. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, “In Situ aerosol optical thickness collected by the SIMBIOS program(1997–2000): Protocols, and data QC and analysis,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 11–21.

Fargion, G. S.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, “Sun-pointing-error correction for sea deployment of the MICROTOPS II handheld sun photometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 20, 767–771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation: revision 2,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Flatau, M. K.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P. J.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fougnie, B.

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagerup, S.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hersé, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Husar, R. B.

R. B. Husar, J. M. Prospero, L. L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ignatov, A.

A. Ignatov, “Sensitivity and information content of aerosol retrievals from AVHRR: radiometric factors,” Appl. Opt. 46, 991–1011 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, information content, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 335–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobowitz, H.

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kia, J.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, K. R.

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

Liu, M.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. N.

C. N. Long, D. L. Slater, T. Tooman, “Total sky imager model 880 status and testing results,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001), p. 36.

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Markowitz, K. M.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

G. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, “In Situ aerosol optical thickness collected by the SIMBIOS program(1997–2000): Protocols, and data QC and analysis,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 11–21.

Miller, M. A.

M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, R. M. Reynolds, “The accuracy of marine shadow-band measurements of aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 397–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Reynolds, M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, “A fast-rotating, spectral shadowband radiometer for marine applications,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 200–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Porter, M. A. Miller, C. Motell, C. Pietras, “Use of hand-held sun photometers for measurements of aerosol optical thickness at sea,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 765–774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mims, F. M.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morys, M.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Motell, C.

J. N. Porter, M. A. Miller, C. Motell, C. Pietras, “Use of hand-held sun photometers for measurements of aerosol optical thickness at sea,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 765–774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation: revision 2,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nalli, N. R.

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohring, G.

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peetermans, W.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, “Sun-pointing-error correction for sea deployment of the MICROTOPS II handheld sun photometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 20, 767–771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Porter, M. A. Miller, C. Motell, C. Pietras, “Use of hand-held sun photometers for measurements of aerosol optical thickness at sea,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 765–774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Porter, J. N.

J. N. Porter, M. A. Miller, C. Motell, C. Pietras, “Use of hand-held sun photometers for measurements of aerosol optical thickness at sea,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 765–774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

R. B. Husar, J. M. Prospero, L. L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, P. K.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, M. R.

M. R. Reynolds, M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, “A fast-rotating, spectral shadowband radiometer for marine applications,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 200–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. M.

M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, R. M. Reynolds, “The accuracy of marine shadow-band measurements of aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 397–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rood, M.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slater, D. L.

C. N. Long, D. L. Slater, T. Tooman, “Total sky imager model 880 status and testing results,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001), p. 36.

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, information content, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 335–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Wetzel, L. L. Stowe, “Satellite-observed patterns in stratus microphysics, aerosol optical thickness, and shortwave radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,287–31,299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Husar, J. M. Prospero, L. L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, A.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, N. D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T.

C. N. Long, D. L. Slater, T. Tooman, “Total sky imager model 880 status and testing results,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001), p. 36.

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

Vogelmann, A. M.

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walkup, T.

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, M. Wang, “Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748–757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, M. A.

M. A. Wetzel, L. L. Stowe, “Satellite-observed patterns in stratus microphysics, aerosol optical thickness, and shortwave radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,287–31,299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

S. A. Christopher, J. Zhang, “Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing from MODIS and CERES observations over the oceans,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1859–1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. Ignatov, “Sensitivity and information content of aerosol retrievals from AVHRR: radiometric factors,” Appl. Opt. 46, 991–1011 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Deschamps, B. Fougnie, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “SIMBAD: a field radiometer for satellite ocean-color validation,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4055–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. Holben, T. Eck, “The log-normal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics; empirical tests using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sun photometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Christopher, J. Zhang, “Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing from MODIS and CERES observations over the oceans,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1859–1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.

M. R. Reynolds, M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, “A fast-rotating, spectral shadowband radiometer for marine applications,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 200–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, R. M. Reynolds, “The accuracy of marine shadow-band measurements of aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 397–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Porter, M. A. Miller, C. Motell, C. Pietras, “Use of hand-held sun photometers for measurements of aerosol optical thickness at sea,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 765–774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, “Sun-pointing-error correction for sea deployment of the MICROTOPS II handheld sun photometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 20, 767–771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

A. Ignatov, L. Stowe, “Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. II. Quality control, probability distribution functions, information content, and consistency checks of retrievals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 335–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, M. Wang, “Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748–757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate

L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, G. Ohring, K. R. Knapp, N. R. Nalli, “The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) climate dataset: initial analysis and evaluations,” J. Climate 15, 1243–1260 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. B. Husar, J. M. Prospero, L. L. Stowe, “Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness product,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,889–16,909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Wetzel, L. L. Stowe, “Satellite-observed patterns in stratus microphysics, aerosol optical thickness, and shortwave radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,287–31,299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Morys, F. M. Mims, S. Hagerup, S. E. Anderson, A. Baker, J. Kia, T. Walkup, “Design, calibration, and performance of MICROTOPS II handheld ozone monitor and sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,573–14,582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Markowitz, P. J. Flatau, P. K. Quinn, C. M. Carrico, M. K. Flatau, A. M. Vogelmann, D. Bates, M. Liu, M. Rood, “Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: an ACE-Asia experiment perspective,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8662–8673 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rem. Sens. Environ.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, W. M. Balch, “Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tellus

A. K. Ångström, “Techniques for determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 2, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. Ångström, “The parameters of atmospheric turbidity,” Tellus 16, 64–75 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation: revision 2,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

National Research Council, Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climatic Change (National Academy Press, 1996).

R. R. Draxler, “Hybrid sigle-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectories (HY-SPLIT): Version 3.0,” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD., 1992).

C. N. Long, D. L. Slater, T. Tooman, “Total sky imager model 880 status and testing results,” (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001), p. 36.

G. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, “In Situ aerosol optical thickness collected by the SIMBIOS program(1997–2000): Protocols, and data QC and analysis,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001), pp. 11–21.

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