Abstract

Resonant-cavity-enhanced light-emitting diodes (RCE LED’s) are of increasing interest as a low-cost alternative to lasers for short-distance applications. We report on the characteristics of thin-film AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double-heterostructure RCE LED’s with metal mirrors on both sides fabricated by means of epitaxial liftoff and bonded to silicon host substrates. The devices exhibit typical turn-on voltages of 1.3 V, operating resistances of 31 Ω, linewidths of 10.4 nm, efficiencies of 1.4%, dispersion half-angles of 23.7°, and stable output over more than 1700 h. These devices exhibit significant improvement over conventional LED’s without additional complicated processing or growth steps, resulting in a manufacturable, low-cost device.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ersen, I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, “Direct bonding of GaAs films on silicon circuits by epitaxial liftoff,” Solid-State Electron. 36, 1731–1739 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Corbett, L. Considine, S. Walsh, W. M. Kelly, “Resonant cavity light emitting diode and detector using epitaxial liftoff,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1041–1043 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H-J. J. Yeh, J. S. Smith, “Fluidic self-assembly for the integration of GaAs light-emitting diodes on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, M. Allen, “Alignable epitaxial liftoff of GaAs materials with selective deposition using polyimide diaphragms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123–1126 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983).
  15. Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1994

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H-J. J. Yeh, J. S. Smith, “Fluidic self-assembly for the integration of GaAs light-emitting diodes on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ersen, I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, “Direct bonding of GaAs films on silicon circuits by epitaxial liftoff,” Solid-State Electron. 36, 1731–1739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Corbett, L. Considine, S. Walsh, W. M. Kelly, “Resonant cavity light emitting diode and detector using epitaxial liftoff,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, M. Allen, “Alignable epitaxial liftoff of GaAs materials with selective deposition using polyimide diaphragms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123–1126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ackaert, A.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, M. Allen, “Alignable epitaxial liftoff of GaAs materials with selective deposition using polyimide diaphragms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123–1126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Botchkarev, A. E.

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buydens, L.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Camperi-Ginestet, C.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, M. Allen, “Alignable epitaxial liftoff of GaAs materials with selective deposition using polyimide diaphragms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123–1126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Considine, L.

B. Corbett, L. Considine, S. Walsh, W. M. Kelly, “Resonant cavity light emitting diode and detector using epitaxial liftoff,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

B. Corbett, L. Considine, S. Walsh, W. M. Kelly, “Resonant cavity light emitting diode and detector using epitaxial liftoff,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dingle, B. D.

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Du, G.

Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dziura, T. G.

Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ersen, A.

A. Ersen, I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, “Direct bonding of GaAs films on silicon circuits by epitaxial liftoff,” Solid-State Electron. 36, 1731–1739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. C. C.

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

A. Ersen, I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, “Direct bonding of GaAs films on silicon circuits by epitaxial liftoff,” Solid-State Electron. 36, 1731–1739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hargis, M.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, M. Allen, “Alignable epitaxial liftoff of GaAs materials with selective deposition using polyimide diaphragms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123–1126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, N. E. J.

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. M.

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

C. Camperi-Ginestet, M. Hargis, N. M. Jokerst, M. Allen, “Alignable epitaxial liftoff of GaAs materials with selective deposition using polyimide diaphragms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1123–1126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keiser, G.

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983).

Kelly, W. M.

B. Corbett, L. Considine, S. Walsh, W. M. Kelly, “Resonant cavity light emitting diode and detector using epitaxial liftoff,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lott, J. A.

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, R. W.

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pollentier, I.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salvador, A.

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

A. Ersen, I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, “Direct bonding of GaAs films on silicon circuits by epitaxial liftoff,” Solid-State Electron. 36, 1731–1739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. S.

H-J. J. Yeh, J. S. Smith, “Fluidic self-assembly for the integration of GaAs light-emitting diodes on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, M. B.

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sverdlov, B.

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tu, L.-W.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, S.

B. Corbett, L. Considine, S. Walsh, W. M. Kelly, “Resonant cavity light emitting diode and detector using epitaxial liftoff,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-H.

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

A. Ersen, I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, “Direct bonding of GaAs films on silicon circuits by epitaxial liftoff,” Solid-State Electron. 36, 1731–1739 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. J.

Y. J. Yang, T. G. Dziura, S. C. Wang, G. Du, S. Wang, “Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 9–11 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, H-J. J.

H-J. J. Yeh, J. S. Smith, “Fluidic self-assembly for the integration of GaAs light-emitting diodes on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zavracky, P. M.

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zolper, J. C.

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. E. J. Hunt, E. F. Schubert, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, G. J. Zydzik, “Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2600–2602 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Dingle, M. B. Spitzer, R. W. McClelland, J. C. C. Fan, P. M. Zavracky, “Monolithic integration of a light-emitting diode array and a silicon circuit using transfer processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2760–2762 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Y.-H. Wang, A. Y. Cho, L.-W. Tu, G. J. Zydzik, “Resonant cavity light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 921–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

I. Pollentier, P. Demeester, A. Ackaert, L. Buydens, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs LEDs to Si for fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 26, 193–194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lott, R. P. Schneider, G. A. Vawter, J. C. Zolper, K. J. Malloy, “Visible (66 nm) resonant cavity light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 29, 328–329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Salvador, F. Huang, B. Sverdlov, A. E. Botchkarev, H. Morkoç, “InP/InGaAs resonant cavity enhanced photodetector and light emitting diode with external mirrors on Si,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1527–1529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated RCE LED on a silicon host substrate: (a) without current applied and (b) with current applied.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Voltage and optical power as a function of current (V-I and L-I) for a 250-μm-square RCE LED on silicon. This device exhibits a turn-on voltage of 1.33 V and an operating resistance of 36.3 Ω. The power output rolls off at close to 25 mA at a maximum output of over 750 μW. This corresponds to an efficiency of 1.4% for most drive currents.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral output of RCE LED before and after top-mirror deposition. The phase change in the Au mirror shifts the cavity resonances slightly, resulting in a reduced linewidth. The FWHM of this device was 26 nm before and 9.9 nm after top-mirror deposition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the angular-measurement technique: the RCE LED was scanned along a line parallel to the integrating-sphere aperture. The horizontal displacement is represented by d, and the vertical spacing between the aperture and RCE LED is represented by t. Displacement was converted to angle by the relation θ = arctan(d/t).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular output from an RCE LED. These data have been deconvolved from data taken by scanning the RCE LED across the aperture of an integrating sphere.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power output over time. The power increased steadily over the first 200–300 h, probably because of current annealing, then gradually increased to just under 111% with fluctuation of less than 2%. After more than 1000 h, the power did not yet exhibit exponential decay, which is indicative of device failure.

Equations (1)

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Area effective = Area real cos ( θ ) .

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