Abstract

A study of the use of millimeter-wavelength spectral transitions to investigate the atmosphere of Mars is presented. In the model experiments investigated it is assumed that a spectrometer in the frequency range from 100 to 260 GHz looks into a modest-sized telescope of from 30 to 50 cm aperture from a near-Mars orbit. The molecules H2O, CO, O2, O3, and H2O2 all have intense spectral lines in the Mars atmosphere in this frequency range and in addition are all very important in understanding the water cycle, the photochemistry, and the circularization in that atmosphere. It is shown that the altitude and the zonal distribution of H2O can be mapped even in atmospheric columns as dry as 0.25 precipital μm. Ozone can be mapped over the entire planet, independent of solar-lighting conditions, dust loading, or clouds in the atmosphere, because millimeter waves are insensitive to any particles that can be suspended in the Mars atmosphere. Because the signal-receiving techniques use superheterodyne devices and narrow spectral lines, zonal and meridional winds can be measured at altitudes above 10 km with a precision approaching approximately 3 m/s by the use of Doppler shifts. Temperature–pressure profiles can be measured to altitudes of 100 km by the use of CO lines in the limb-sounding mode.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. B. McElroy, T. M. Donahue, “Stability of the Martian atmosphere,” Science 177, 986–988 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. M. Hunten, M. B. McElroy, “Production and the escape of hydrogen on Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5989–6001 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, “Behavior of carbon dioxide and other volatiles on Mars,” Science 153, 136–141 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. M. Jakosky, C. B. Farmer, “The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: complete global results of the Viking Mars atmospheric water vapor experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 2999–3019 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. J. Conrath, “Planetary-scale wave structure in the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 48, 246–255 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. McCleese, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars using IR-pressure modulation and filter radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4232–4245 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. M. Hunten, “Aeronomy of the lower atmosphere of Mars,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12, 529–535 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. S. Barker, “Martian atmospheric water vapor observations: 1972–74 apparitions,” Icarus 28, 247–268 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. W. Davies, “The Mars water cycle,” Icarus 45, 398–414 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Farmer, P. E. Doms, “Global seasonal variation of water vapor on Mars and the implications for permafrost,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2881–2888 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. M. Jakosky, E. S. Barker, “Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor: variability of the seasonal cycle,” Icarus 57, 322–334 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. M. Jakosky, “The seasonal cycle of water on Mars,” Space Sci. Rev. (to be published).
  19. D. W. Davies, “The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2875–2880 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. M. Flasar, R. M. Goody, “Diurnal behavior of water on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 161–181 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. D. Parkinson, D. M. Hunten, “Spectroscopy and aeronomy of O2 on Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380–1390 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Y. Kong, M. B. McElroy, “Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 32, 168–169 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. S. Barker, “Detection of molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere,” Nature (Lett.) 238, 447–448 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, “Detection of molecular oxygen on Mars,” Science 177, 988–992 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. T. Trauger, J. I. Lunine, “Spectroscopy of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus and Mars,” Icarus 55, 272–231 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Leovy, Y. Mintz, “Numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation and climate of Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1167–1190 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. M. Haberle, C. B. Leovy, J. B. Pollack, “A numerical model for the Martian polar cap winds,” Icarus 39, 151–183 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Goldsmith, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithica, N.Y. 14583 (personal communication, January1993).

1986

D. McCleese, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars using IR-pressure modulation and filter radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4232–4245 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. M. Jakosky, E. S. Barker, “Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor: variability of the seasonal cycle,” Icarus 57, 322–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. T. Trauger, J. I. Lunine, “Spectroscopy of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus and Mars,” Icarus 55, 272–231 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. M. Jakosky, C. B. Farmer, “The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: complete global results of the Viking Mars atmospheric water vapor experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 2999–3019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

B. J. Conrath, “Planetary-scale wave structure in the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 48, 246–255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Davies, “The Mars water cycle,” Icarus 45, 398–414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. W. Davies, “The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2875–2880 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, P. E. Doms, “Global seasonal variation of water vapor on Mars and the implications for permafrost,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2881–2888 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Haberle, C. B. Leovy, J. B. Pollack, “A numerical model for the Martian polar cap winds,” Icarus 39, 151–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. Y. Kong, M. B. McElroy, “Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 32, 168–169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

F. M. Flasar, R. M. Goody, “Diurnal behavior of water on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 161–181 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barker, “Martian atmospheric water vapor observations: 1972–74 apparitions,” Icarus 28, 247–268 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

D. M. Hunten, “Aeronomy of the lower atmosphere of Mars,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12, 529–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

M. B. McElroy, T. M. Donahue, “Stability of the Martian atmosphere,” Science 177, 986–988 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Parkinson, D. M. Hunten, “Spectroscopy and aeronomy of O2 on Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380–1390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barker, “Detection of molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere,” Nature (Lett.) 238, 447–448 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, “Detection of molecular oxygen on Mars,” Science 177, 988–992 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

D. M. Hunten, M. B. McElroy, “Production and the escape of hydrogen on Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5989–6001 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

C. Leovy, Y. Mintz, “Numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation and climate of Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1167–1190 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, “Behavior of carbon dioxide and other volatiles on Mars,” Science 153, 136–141 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, G. P.

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barker, E. S.

B. M. Jakosky, E. S. Barker, “Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor: variability of the seasonal cycle,” Icarus 57, 322–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barker, “Martian atmospheric water vapor observations: 1972–74 apparitions,” Icarus 28, 247–268 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barker, “Detection of molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere,” Nature (Lett.) 238, 447–448 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barth, C. A.

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biemann, K.

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Biller, J. E.

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Burke, T.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, C. E.

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, N. P.

J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, “Detection of molecular oxygen on Mars,” Science 177, 988–992 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colburn, D.

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Connes, P.

J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Conrath, B.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Conrath, B. J.

B. J. Conrath, “Planetary-scale wave structure in the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 48, 246–255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Curran, R.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. W.

D. W. Davies, “The Mars water cycle,” Icarus 45, 398–414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Davies, “The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2875–2880 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dick, M. L.

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doms, P. E.

C. B. Farmer, P. E. Doms, “Global seasonal variation of water vapor on Mars and the implications for permafrost,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2881–2888 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Donahue, T. M.

M. B. McElroy, T. M. Donahue, “Stability of the Martian atmosphere,” Science 177, 986–988 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farmer, C. B.

B. M. Jakosky, C. B. Farmer, “The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: complete global results of the Viking Mars atmospheric water vapor experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 2999–3019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, P. E. Doms, “Global seasonal variation of water vapor on Mars and the implications for permafrost,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2881–2888 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Flasar, F. M.

F. M. Flasar, R. M. Goody, “Diurnal behavior of water on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 161–181 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, P.

P. Goldsmith, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithica, N.Y. 14583 (personal communication, January1993).

Goody, R. M.

F. M. Flasar, R. M. Goody, “Diurnal behavior of water on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 161–181 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Grieman, P. W.

J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haberle, R. M.

R. M. Haberle, C. B. Leovy, J. B. Pollack, “A numerical model for the Martian polar cap winds,” Icarus 39, 151–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hanel, R.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. M.

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hess, S. L.

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Holland, A. L.

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hord, C. W.

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howarth, D. W.

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hunten, D. M.

D. M. Hunten, “Aeronomy of the lower atmosphere of Mars,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12, 529–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Parkinson, D. M. Hunten, “Spectroscopy and aeronomy of O2 on Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380–1390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, M. B. McElroy, “Production and the escape of hydrogen on Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5989–6001 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J.

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jakosky, B. M.

B. M. Jakosky, E. S. Barker, “Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor: variability of the seasonal cycle,” Icarus 57, 322–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Jakosky, C. B. Farmer, “The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: complete global results of the Viking Mars atmospheric water vapor experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 2999–3019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Jakosky, “The seasonal cycle of water on Mars,” Space Sci. Rev. (to be published).

Junde, V.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R.

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kong, T. Y.

T. Y. Kong, M. B. McElroy, “Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 32, 168–169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lafleur, A. L.

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lane, A. L.

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorte, D. D.

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Leighton, R. B.

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, “Behavior of carbon dioxide and other volatiles on Mars,” Science 153, 136–141 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leovy, C.

C. Leovy, Y. Mintz, “Numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation and climate of Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1167–1190 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Leovy, C. B.

J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Haberle, C. B. Leovy, J. B. Pollack, “A numerical model for the Martian polar cap winds,” Icarus 39, 151–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lunine, J. I.

J. T. Trauger, J. I. Lunine, “Spectroscopy of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus and Mars,” Icarus 55, 272–231 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maguire, W.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

McCleese, D.

McElroy, M. B.

T. Y. Kong, M. B. McElroy, “Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 32, 168–169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. B. McElroy, T. M. Donahue, “Stability of the Martian atmosphere,” Science 177, 986–988 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Hunten, M. B. McElroy, “Production and the escape of hydrogen on Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5989–6001 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mintz, Y.

J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Leovy, Y. Mintz, “Numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation and climate of Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1167–1190 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Murray, B. C.

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, “Behavior of carbon dioxide and other volatiles on Mars,” Science 153, 136–141 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Owen, T.

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Parkinson, T. D.

T. D. Parkinson, D. M. Hunten, “Spectroscopy and aeronomy of O2 on Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380–1390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pearl, J.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pirraglia, J.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Haberle, C. B. Leovy, J. B. Pollack, “A numerical model for the Martian polar cap winds,” Icarus 39, 151–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rushneck, D. R.

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. A.

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. I.

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tillman, J. E.

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, “Detection of molecular oxygen on Mars,” Science 177, 988–992 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauger, J. T.

J. T. Trauger, J. I. Lunine, “Spectroscopy of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus and Mars,” Icarus 55, 272–231 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Camp, W.

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J.

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, M. R.

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

J. F. Noxon, W. A. Traub, N. P. Carleton, P. Connes, “Detection of O2 dayglow emission from Mars and the Martian ozone abundances,” Astrophys. J. 207, 1025–1035 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

S. L. Hess, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, “The annual cycle of pressure on Mars measured by the Viking Landers 1 and 2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 197–200 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

B. J. Conrath, “Planetary-scale wave structure in the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 48, 246–255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barker, “Martian atmospheric water vapor observations: 1972–74 apparitions,” Icarus 28, 247–268 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Davies, “The Mars water cycle,” Icarus 45, 398–414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Jakosky, E. S. Barker, “Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor: variability of the seasonal cycle,” Icarus 57, 322–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, J. I. Lunine, “Spectroscopy of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere of Venus and Mars,” Icarus 55, 272–231 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Haberle, C. B. Leovy, J. B. Pollack, “A numerical model for the Martian polar cap winds,” Icarus 39, 151–183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Kong, M. B. McElroy, “Photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere,” Icarus 32, 168–169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

C. Leovy, Y. Mintz, “Numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation and climate of Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1167–1190 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Parkinson, D. M. Hunten, “Spectroscopy and aeronomy of O2 on Mars,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380–1390 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, C. B. Leovy, P. W. Grieman, Y. Mintz, “A Martian general circulation experiment with large topograph,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 3–29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. B. Farmer, P. E. Doms, “Global seasonal variation of water vapor on Mars and the implications for permafrost,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2881–2888 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. Conrath, R. Curran, R. Hanel, V. Junde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, J. Walker, T. Burke, “Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4267–4278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, D. W. Davies, A. L. Holland, D. D. LaPorte, P. E. Doms, “Mars: water vapor observations from the Viking orbiters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4225–4248 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Jakosky, C. B. Farmer, “The seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: complete global results of the Viking Mars atmospheric water vapor experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 2999–3019 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, A. L. Lafleur, “The composition of the atmosphere at the surface of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4635–4639 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hunten, M. B. McElroy, “Production and the escape of hydrogen on Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5989–6001 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Davies, “The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2875–2880 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, D. Colburn, R. Kahn, J. Hunter, W. van Camp, C. E. Carleton, M. R. Wolfe, “Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere, as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4479–4496 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nature (Lett.)

E. S. Barker, “Detection of molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere,” Nature (Lett.) 238, 447–448 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

F. M. Flasar, R. M. Goody, “Diurnal behavior of water on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 161–181 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.

D. M. Hunten, “Aeronomy of the lower atmosphere of Mars,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12, 529–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Science

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, “Detection of molecular oxygen on Mars,” Science 177, 988–992 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Leighton, B. C. Murray, “Behavior of carbon dioxide and other volatiles on Mars,” Science 153, 136–141 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. McElroy, T. M. Donahue, “Stability of the Martian atmosphere,” Science 177, 986–988 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barth, C. W. Hord, A. I. Stewart, A. L. Lane, M. L. Dick, G. P. Anderson, “Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: seasonal variation of ozone on Mars,” Science 179, 795–796 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. M. Jakosky, “The seasonal cycle of water on Mars,” Space Sci. Rev. (to be published).

P. Goldsmith, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithica, N.Y. 14583 (personal communication, January1993).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Telescope beam altitude resolution when the Mars limb is viewed as a function of the spacecraft altitude for apertures of 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nadir-viewing synthetic 183-GHz spectra for H2O vapor column abundances of 1 and 10 pr. μm for the Martian midlatitudes. The spectra have been corrupted by realistic measurement noise in a 10-s integration (INT). Res, resolution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Synthetic nadir-viewing lines for uniformly mixed H2O below altitudes of 5, 15, 25, and 80 km. In each case the column abundance is 10 pr. μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Synthetic nadir-viewing lines for uniformly mixed H2O above altitudes of 0, 10, and 25 km over the cold winter pole. Total abundance is always 1.0 pr. μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water vapor retrievals (dashed curves) from synthetic spectra plus noise for uniformly mixed profiles to saturation with total water of 10 pr. μm. A midlatitude, summer temperature–pressure profile is assumed, along with nadir sounding.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as for Fig. 5 but for a total water abundance of 40 pr. μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as for Fig. 5 but for a total water abundance of 0.25 pr. μm over the winter pole. For BT(K), a 1-MHz resolution is assumed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Limb-sounding weighting functions for 10 pr. μm of H2O uniformly mixed to saturation. The brightness temperature BT(K) at (νν0) MHz from the line center is shown in tabular form. Also shown is the assumed H2O mixing ratio ([H2O]) as a function of altitude. In each case, it is assumed that an infinitely narrow beam is pointed at the limb at the altitude shown.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as for Fig. 8 but for a total water abundance of 0.25 pr. μm over the winter pole. For BT(K), a 1-MHz resolution is assumed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temperature–pressure retrievals (dashed curve) from synthetic spectra corrupted by noise; nadir viewing. The input temperature–pressure profile (+) is the Viking 2 measurement.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same as for Fig. 10 but for the winter pole. The input temperature–pressure profile is from a radio occultation inversion.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same as for Fig. 8 but the weighting functions are for the CO(2–1) line used for temperature–pressure inversions. For BT(K), a 1-MHz resolution is assumed.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Synthetic O3 spectral line (235.7 GHz) over the winter pole, as obtained with nadir viewing.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Synthetic O2 spectral lines (118.3 GHz) over the winter pole (emission) and midlatitudes (absorption).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Same as for Fig. 8 but for O3 (231.3 GHz). For BT(K), a 1-MHz resolution is assumed.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Same as for Fig. 8 but for O2 (118.3 GHz).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Diagram of limb-sounding geometry illustrating the strong contribution from the tangent shell (determined by the beam width) relative to the shells above it.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Synthetic limb spectra for the isotope line 13C18O for tangent altitudes of 0, 10, 20, and 30 km. Note the self-absorption below 20 km altitude.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Microwave Transitions for Mars Molecular Speciesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Covariance Analysis for Mars Wind Measurements with the 13CO Spectral Line

Equations (1)

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T noise = 2 T sy ( res t ) 1 2 .

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